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Install Cassandra on Fedora

with one comment

It was quite interesting to discover that DataStax no longer provides the DataStax Community version of Apache Cassandra or the DataStax Distribution of Apache Cassandra. Needless to say, I was quite disappointed because it means folks will get less opportunity to learn how to use Cassandra because it makes it more difficult for beginning developers.

I spent a good hour sorting through what was available and then figuring out the real requirements to install Apache Cassandra 3.11. These are the instructions.

Install Java and JRE as Prerequisites

If you don’t have the JRE installed, you should download it from Oracle’s website and install it. After you download the latest version of the JRE package (jre-8u141-linux-x64.rpm). You should use the rpm utility to install the JRE package, like the following example:

rpm -ivh /home/student/Downloads/jre-8*.rpm

It should generate the following installation report:

Preparing...                          ################################# [100%]
	package jre1.8.0_141-1.8.0_141-fcs.x86_64 is already installed
sh-4.2# rpm -qa jre
sh-4.2# rpm -qf jre
error: file /jre: No such file or directory
sh-4.2# rpm -qa | grep jre
jre1.8.0_141-1.8.0_141-fcs.x86_64
sh-4.2# rpm -qa | grep jre | rpm -qi
rpm: no arguments given for query
sh-4.2# rpm -qi `rpm -qa | grep jre`
Name        : jre1.8.0_141
Version     : 1.8.0_141
Release     : fcs
Architecture: x86_64
Install Date: Mon 24 Jul 2017 11:09:58 PM PDT
Group       : Development/Tools
Size        : 139460427
License     : http://java.com/license
Signature   : (none)
Source RPM  : jre1.8.0_141-1.8.0_141-fcs.src.rpm
Build Date  : Wed 12 Jul 2017 04:47:52 AM PDT
Build Host  : jdk7-lin2-amd64
Relocations : /usr/java 
Packager    : Java Software <jre-comments@java.sun.com>
Vendor      : Oracle Corporation
URL         : URL_REF
Summary     : Java Platform Standard Edition Runtime Environment
Description :
The Java Platform Standard Edition Runtime Environment (JRE) contains
everything necessary to run applets and applications designed for the
Java platform. This includes the Java virtual machine, plus the Java
platform classes and supporting files.
 
The JRE is freely redistributable, per the terms of the included license.

Confirm Java and JRE Installation

You can check the current installed version of Java and JRE by using the alternatives utility with the --config option and the keyword of java or jre.

sh-4.2# alternatives --config java

It should generate the following list when you check for the java library:

There are 3 programs which provide 'java'.
 
  Selection    Command
-----------------------------------------------
*  1           /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0-openjdk-1.7.0.79-2.5.5.0.fc20.x86_64/jre/bin/java
 + 2           /usr/lib/jvm/jre-1.8.0-openjdk.x86_64/bin/java
   3           /usr/java/jre1.8.0_141/bin/java
 
Enter to keep the current selection[+], or type selection number:

It should generate the following list when you check for the javac library:

There are 2 programs which provide 'javac'.
 
  Selection    Command
-----------------------------------------------
*  1           /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0-openjdk-1.7.0.79-2.5.5.0.fc20.x86_64/bin/javac
 + 2           /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk.x86_64/bin/javac
 
Enter to keep the current selection[+], or type selection number:

After installing and selecting them as the designated alternative, if you have more than one Java or JRE installed on your OS, you should create a configuration file for the root user. You should include the following to set your $PATH, $JAVA_HOME, and $JRE_HOME environment variables:

# Add the Java and JRE paths to the $PATH environments.
export set PATH=$PATH:/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.45.x86_64:/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.45.x86_64/jre
 
# Add the $JAVA_HOME and $JRE_HOME environment variables.
export set JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.45.x86_64/
export set JRE_HOME=/usr

Install Apache Cassandra

The yum utility is the best way to install Apache Cassandra. However, you will need to configure the /etc/yum.repos.d/cassandra.repo before you attempt to install Cassandra 3.11 from the Apache organization, like this:

[cassandra]
name=Apache Cassandra
baseurl=https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/redhat/311x/
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS

After you’ve added the necessary yum configuration file and ensured you’re using both Java 1.8 and JRE 1.8, you can install Apache Cassandra with the following yum command as the root user or as a sudoer member with the sudo command:

yum install -y cassandra

If successful, you should see the following output:

Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
cassandra/signature                                         |  819 B  00:00     
cassandra/signature                                         | 2.9 kB  00:00 !!! 
mysql-connectors-community                                  | 2.5 kB  00:00     
mysql-tools-community                                       | 2.5 kB  00:00     
mysql56-community                                           | 2.5 kB  00:00     
http://yum.postgresql.org/9.3/fedora/fedora-20-x86_64/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno 14] HTTP Error 404 - Not Found
Trying other mirror.
updates/20/x86_64/metalink                                  | 2.6 kB  00:00     
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package cassandra.noarch 0:3.11.0-1 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package            Arch            Version            Repository          Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 cassandra          noarch          3.11.0-1           cassandra           28 M
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package
 
Total download size: 28 M
Installed size: 37 M
Downloading packages:
warning: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/20/cassandra/packages/cassandra-3.11.0-1.noarch.rpm: Header V4 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID fe4b2bda: NOKEY
Public key for cassandra-3.11.0-1.noarch.rpm is not installed
cassandra-3.11.0-1.noarch.rpm                               |  28 MB  00:07     
Retrieving key from https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS
Importing GPG key 0xF2833C93:
 Userid     : "Eric Evans <eevans@sym-link.com>"
 Fingerprint: cec8 6bb4 a0ba 9d0f 9039 7cae f835 8fa2 f283 3c93
 From       : https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS
Importing GPG key 0x8D77295D:
 Userid     : "Eric Evans <eevans@sym-link.com>"
 Fingerprint: c496 5ee9 e301 5d19 2ccc f2b6 f758 ce31 8d77 295d
 From       : https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS
Importing GPG key 0x2B5C1B00:
 Userid     : "Sylvain Lebresne (pcmanus) <sylvain@datastax.com>"
 Fingerprint: 5aed 1bf3 78e9 a19d ade1 bcb3 4bd7 36a8 2b5c 1b00
 From       : https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS
Importing GPG key 0x0353B12C:
 Userid     : "T Jake Luciani <jake@apache.org>"
 Fingerprint: 514a 2ad6 31a5 7a16 dd00 47ec 749d 6eec 0353 b12c
 From       : https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS
Importing GPG key 0xFE4B2BDA:
 Userid     : "Michael Shuler <michael@pbandjelly.org>"
 Fingerprint: a26e 528b 271f 19b9 e5d8 e19e a278 b781 fe4b 2bda
 From       : https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
  Installing : cassandra-3.11.0-1.noarch                                    1/1 
  Verifying  : cassandra-3.11.0-1.noarch                                    1/1 
 
Installed:
  cassandra.noarch 0:3.11.0-1                                                   
 
Complete!

Starting Cassandra

You should start Cassandra as the cassandra user. Before starting Cassandra, you need to create a .bashrc file for the cassandra user because one isn’t created by default since you can’t log on to the Linux OS as the cassandra user. The home directory for the cassandra user is /var/lib/cassandra and the owner of that directory is the root user.

As the root user, create the following .bashrc file for the cassandra user:

# Wrap sqlplus with rlwrap to edit prior lines with the
# up, down, left and right keys.
cqlsh()
{
  if [ "$RLWRAP" = "0" ]; then
    cqlsh "$@"
  else
    rlwrap cqlsh "$@"
  fi
}
 
# Set vi as a command line editor.
set -o vi
 
# Add the Java and JRE paths to the $PATH environments.
export set PATH=$PATH:/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.45.x86_64:/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.45.x86_64/jre
 
# Add the $JAVA_HOME and $JRE_HOME environment variables.
export set JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.45.x86_64/
export set JRE_HOME=/usr

You should start Cassandra in background, like this:

cassandra

Using Cassandra

As the student user in my developer Fedora instance, you should be able to connect using the following:

cqlsh

You will see the following:

Connected to Test Cluster at 127.0.0.1:9042.
[cqlsh 5.0.1 | Cassandra 3.11.0 | CQL spec 3.4.4 | Native protocol v4]
Use HELP for help.
cqlsh> HELP
 
Documented shell commands:
===========================
CAPTURE  CLS          COPY  DESCRIBE  EXPAND  LOGIN   SERIAL  SOURCE   UNICODE
CLEAR    CONSISTENCY  DESC  EXIT      HELP    PAGING  SHOW    TRACING
 
CQL help topics:
================
AGGREGATES               CREATE_KEYSPACE           DROP_TRIGGER      TEXT     
ALTER_KEYSPACE           CREATE_MATERIALIZED_VIEW  DROP_TYPE         TIME     
ALTER_MATERIALIZED_VIEW  CREATE_ROLE               DROP_USER         TIMESTAMP
ALTER_TABLE              CREATE_TABLE              FUNCTIONS         TRUNCATE 
ALTER_TYPE               CREATE_TRIGGER            GRANT             TYPES    
ALTER_USER               CREATE_TYPE               INSERT            UPDATE   
APPLY                    CREATE_USER               INSERT_JSON       USE      
ASCII                    DATE                      INT               UUID     
BATCH                    DELETE                    JSON            
BEGIN                    DROP_AGGREGATE            KEYWORDS        
BLOB                     DROP_COLUMNFAMILY         LIST_PERMISSIONS
BOOLEAN                  DROP_FUNCTION             LIST_ROLES      
COUNTER                  DROP_INDEX                LIST_USERS      
CREATE_AGGREGATE         DROP_KEYSPACE             PERMISSIONS     
CREATE_COLUMNFAMILY      DROP_MATERIALIZED_VIEW    REVOKE          
CREATE_FUNCTION          DROP_ROLE                 SELECT          
CREATE_INDEX             DROP_TABLE                SELECT_JSON

Written by maclochlainn

July 25th, 2017 at 9:23 pm

Oracle Diagnostic Queries

without comments

It’s always a challenge when you want to build your own Oracle SQL Tools. I was asked how you could synchronize multiple cursors into a single source. The answer is quite simple, you write an Oracle object type to represent a record structure, an Oracle list of the record structure, and a stored function to return the list of the record structure.

For this example, you create the following table_struct object type and a table_list collection type:

/* Drop the types from most to least dependent. */
DROP TYPE table_list;
DROP TYPE table_struct;
 
/* Create the record type structure. */
CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE table_struct IS OBJECT
  ( table_name    VARCHAR2(30)
  , column_cnt    NUMBER
  , row_cnt       NUMBER );
/
 
/* Create the collection of a record type structure. */
CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE table_list IS TABLE OF table_struct;
/

The following listing function now reads all table names from the user_tables view. A subordinate cursor reads the user_tab_columns view for the number of columns in a table. A Native Dynamic SQL (NDS) cursor counts the number of rows in each tables found in the .

/* Create the listing function. */
CREATE OR REPLACE
FUNCTION listing RETURN table_list IS
 
  /* Variable list. */
  lv_column_cnt  NUMBER;
  lv_row_cnt     NUMBER;
 
  /* Declare a statement variable. */
  stmt  VARCHAR2(200);
 
  /* Declare a system reference cursor variable. */
  lv_refcursor  SYS_REFCURSOR;
  lv_table_cnt  NUMBER;
 
  /* Declare an output variable.  */
  lv_list  TABLE_LIST := table_list();
 
  /* Declare a table list cursor that excludes APEX tables. */
  CURSOR c IS
    SELECT table_name
    FROM   user_tables
    WHERE  table_name NOT IN
            ('DEPT','EMP','APEX$_ACL','APEX$_WS_WEBPG_SECTIONS','APEX$_WS_ROWS'
            ,'APEX$_WS_HISTORY','APEX$_WS_NOTES','APEX$_WS_LINKS'
            ,'APEX$_WS_TAGS','APEX$_WS_FILES','APEX$_WS_WEBPG_SECTION_HISTORY'
            ,'DEMO_USERS','DEMO_CUSTOMERS','DEMO_ORDERS','DEMO_PRODUCT_INFO'
            ,'DEMO_ORDER_ITEMS','DEMO_STATES');
 
  /* Declare a column count. */
  CURSOR cnt
  ( cv_table_name  VARCHAR2 ) IS
    SELECT   table_name
    ,        COUNT(column_id) AS cnt_columns
    FROM     user_tab_columns
    WHERE    table_name = cv_table_name
    GROUP BY table_name;
 
BEGIN
  /* Read through the data set of non-environment variables. */
  FOR i IN c LOOP
 
    /* Count the columns of a table. */
    FOR j IN cnt(i.table_name) LOOP
      lv_column_cnt := j.cnt_columns;
    END LOOP;
 
    /* Declare a statement. */
    stmt := 'SELECT COUNT(*) AS column_cnt FROM '||i.table_name;
 
    /* Open the cursor and write set to collection. */
    OPEN lv_refcursor FOR stmt;
    LOOP
      FETCH lv_refcursor INTO lv_table_cnt;
      EXIT WHEN lv_refcursor%NOTFOUND; 
      lv_list.EXTEND;
      lv_list(lv_list.COUNT) := table_struct(
                                    table_name => i.table_name
                                  , column_cnt => lv_column_cnt
                                  , row_cnt    => lv_table_cnt );
    END LOOP;
  END LOOP;
 
  RETURN lv_list;
END;
/

The following query pulls the processed data set as the function’s result:

COL table_name   FORMAT A20     HEADING "Table Name"
COL column_cnt   FORMAT 9,999  HEADING "Column #"
COL row_cnt      FORMAT 9,999  HEADING "Row #"
SELECT table_name
,      column_cnt
,      row_cnt
FROM   TABLE(listing);

It returns the following result set:

Table Name	     Column #  Row #
-------------------- -------- ------
SYSTEM_USER		   11	   5
COMMON_LOOKUP		   10	  49
MEMBER			    9	  10
CONTACT 		   10	  18
ADDRESS 		   10	  18
STREET_ADDRESS		    8	  28
TELEPHONE		   11	  18
RENTAL			    8  4,694
ITEM			   14	  93
RENTAL_ITEM		    9  4,703
PRICE			   11	 558
TRANSACTION		   12  4,694
CALENDAR		    9	 300
AIRPORT 		    9	   6
ACCOUNT_LIST		    8	 200
 
15 rows selected.

As always, I hope this helps those trying to work with the Oracle database.

Written by maclochlainn

January 5th, 2017 at 7:28 pm

Oracle 12c Pre-requisites

without comments

Installing any Oracle database is tedious, but the installing the prerequisites can be especially tedious. This post tries to simplify the process by creating a single prereq.sh file for all the prerequisite libraries, except for the oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall, which you should run after the prerequisite file.

The prerequisite file should contain the following:

yum install -y binutils \
               compat-libstdc++-33 \
               compat-libstdc++-33.i686 \
               gcc \
               gcc-c++ \
               glibc \
               glibc.i686 \
               glibc-devel \
               glibc-devel.i686 \
               ksh \
               libgcc \
               libgcc.i686 \
               libstdc++ \
               libstdc++.i686 \
               libstdc++-devel \
               libstdc++-devel.i686 \
               libaio \
               libaio.i686 \
               libaio-devel \
               libaio-devel.i686 \
               libXext \
               libXext.i686 \
               libXtst \
               libXtst.i686 \
               libX11 \
               libX11.i686 \
               libXau \
               libXau.i686 \
               libxcb \
               libxcb.i686 \
               libXi \
               libXi.i686 \
               make \
               sysstat \
               unixODBC \
               unixODBC-devel \
               zlib-devel \
               zlib-devel.i686

You can run the prereq.sh script as the root user like you would source an environment file:

. ./prereq.sh

Dependent upon what you installed when creating the Oracle Linux 7.1 operating system, you should see something like this in the output console:

sh-4.2# . ./prereq.sh
Loaded plugins: langpacks
Package compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-72.el7.x86_64 already installed and latest version
Package libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el7.x86_64 already installed and latest version
Package libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7.x86_64 already installed and latest version
Package 1:make-3.82-21.el7.x86_64 already installed and latest version
Package sysstat-10.1.5-7.el7.x86_64 already installed and latest version
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package binutils.x86_64 0:2.23.52.0.1-30.el7_1.2 will be updated
---> Package binutils.x86_64 0:2.23.52.0.1-55.el7 will be an update
---> Package compat-libstdc++-33.i686 0:3.2.3-72.el7 will be installed
---> Package gcc.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
--> Processing Dependency: gcc = 4.8.3-9.el7 for package: gcc-gfortran-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: gcc = 4.8.3-9.el7 for package: libquadmath-devel-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64
---> Package gcc.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
--> Processing Dependency: cpp = 4.8.5-4.el7 for package: gcc-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libgomp = 4.8.5-4.el7 for package: gcc-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64
---> Package gcc-c++.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package gcc-c++.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package glibc.x86_64 0:2.17-78.0.1.el7 will be updated
--> Processing Dependency: glibc = 2.17-78.0.1.el7 for package: glibc-headers-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: glibc = 2.17-78.0.1.el7 for package: glibc-common-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64
---> Package glibc.i686 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libfreebl3.so for package: glibc-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.i686
--> Processing Dependency: libfreebl3.so(NSSRAWHASH_3.12.3) for package: glibc-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.i686
---> Package glibc.x86_64 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6 will be an update
---> Package glibc-devel.x86_64 0:2.17-78.0.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package glibc-devel.i686 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6 will be installed
---> Package glibc-devel.x86_64 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6 will be an update
---> Package ksh.x86_64 0:20120801-22.el7_1.3 will be installed
---> Package libX11.x86_64 0:1.6.0-2.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package libX11.i686 0:1.6.3-2.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libX11-common >= 1.6.3-2.el7 for package: libX11-1.6.3-2.el7.i686
---> Package libX11.x86_64 0:1.6.3-2.el7 will be an update
---> Package libXau.i686 0:1.0.8-2.1.el7 will be installed
---> Package libXext.x86_64 0:1.3.2-2.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package libXext.i686 0:1.3.3-3.el7 will be installed
---> Package libXext.x86_64 0:1.3.3-3.el7 will be an update
---> Package libXi.x86_64 0:1.7.2-2.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package libXi.i686 0:1.7.4-2.el7 will be installed
---> Package libXi.x86_64 0:1.7.4-2.el7 will be an update
---> Package libXtst.i686 0:1.2.2-2.1.el7 will be installed
---> Package libaio.x86_64 0:0.3.109-12.el7 will be updated
---> Package libaio.i686 0:0.3.109-13.el7 will be installed
---> Package libaio.x86_64 0:0.3.109-13.el7 will be an update
---> Package libaio-devel.i686 0:0.3.109-13.el7 will be installed
---> Package libaio-devel.x86_64 0:0.3.109-13.el7 will be installed
---> Package libgcc.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package libgcc.i686 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be installed
---> Package libgcc.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package libstdc++.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package libstdc++.i686 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be installed
---> Package libstdc++.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package libstdc++-devel.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package libstdc++-devel.i686 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be installed
---> Package libstdc++-devel.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package libxcb.x86_64 0:1.9-5.el7 will be updated
---> Package libxcb.i686 0:1.11-4.el7 will be installed
---> Package libxcb.x86_64 0:1.11-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package unixODBC.x86_64 0:2.3.1-11.el7 will be installed
---> Package unixODBC-devel.x86_64 0:2.3.1-11.el7 will be installed
---> Package zlib-devel.i686 0:1.2.7-15.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: zlib = 1.2.7-15.el7 for package: zlib-devel-1.2.7-15.el7.i686
--> Processing Dependency: libz.so.1 for package: zlib-devel-1.2.7-15.el7.i686
---> Package zlib-devel.x86_64 0:1.2.7-15.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package cpp.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package cpp.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package gcc-gfortran.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package gcc-gfortran.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
--> Processing Dependency: libgfortran = 4.8.5-4.el7 for package: gcc-gfortran-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libquadmath = 4.8.5-4.el7 for package: gcc-gfortran-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64
---> Package glibc-common.x86_64 0:2.17-78.0.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package glibc-common.x86_64 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6 will be an update
---> Package glibc-headers.x86_64 0:2.17-78.0.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package glibc-headers.x86_64 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6 will be an update
---> Package libX11-common.noarch 0:1.6.0-2.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package libX11-common.noarch 0:1.6.3-2.el7 will be an update
---> Package libgomp.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package libgomp.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package libquadmath-devel.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package libquadmath-devel.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package nss-softokn-freebl.x86_64 0:3.16.2.3-12.el7_1 will be updated
---> Package nss-softokn-freebl.i686 0:3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2 will be installed
---> Package nss-softokn-freebl.x86_64 0:3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2 will be an update
---> Package zlib.x86_64 0:1.2.7-13.el7 will be updated
---> Package zlib.i686 0:1.2.7-15.el7 will be installed
---> Package zlib.x86_64 0:1.2.7-15.el7 will be an update
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libgfortran.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package libgfortran.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
---> Package libquadmath.x86_64 0:4.8.3-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package libquadmath.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7 will be an update
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package                Arch      Version                   Repository     Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 compat-libstdc++-33    i686      3.2.3-72.el7              ol7_latest    196 k
 glibc                  i686      2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6      ol7_latest    4.2 M
 glibc-devel            i686      2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6      ol7_latest    1.0 M
 ksh                    x86_64    20120801-22.el7_1.3       ol7_latest    880 k
 libX11                 i686      1.6.3-2.el7               ol7_latest    609 k
 libXau                 i686      1.0.8-2.1.el7             ol7_latest     28 k
 libXext                i686      1.3.3-3.el7               ol7_latest     38 k
 libXi                  i686      1.7.4-2.el7               ol7_latest     39 k
 libXtst                i686      1.2.2-2.1.el7             ol7_latest     19 k
 libaio                 i686      0.3.109-13.el7            ol7_latest     24 k
 libaio-devel           i686      0.3.109-13.el7            ol7_latest     12 k
 libaio-devel           x86_64    0.3.109-13.el7            ol7_latest     12 k
 libgcc                 i686      4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    102 k
 libstdc++              i686      4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    310 k
 libstdc++-devel        i686      4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    1.5 M
 libxcb                 i686      1.11-4.el7                ol7_latest    201 k
 unixODBC               x86_64    2.3.1-11.el7              ol7_latest    412 k
 unixODBC-devel         x86_64    2.3.1-11.el7              ol7_latest     54 k
 zlib-devel             i686      1.2.7-15.el7              ol7_latest     49 k
 zlib-devel             x86_64    1.2.7-15.el7              ol7_latest     49 k
Updating:
 binutils               x86_64    2.23.52.0.1-55.el7        ol7_latest    5.0 M
 gcc                    x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest     16 M
 gcc-c++                x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    7.2 M
 glibc                  x86_64    2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6      ol7_latest    3.6 M
 glibc-devel            x86_64    2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6      ol7_latest    1.0 M
 libX11                 x86_64    1.6.3-2.el7               ol7_latest    605 k
 libXext                x86_64    1.3.3-3.el7               ol7_latest     38 k
 libXi                  x86_64    1.7.4-2.el7               ol7_latest     39 k
 libaio                 x86_64    0.3.109-13.el7            ol7_latest     24 k
 libgcc                 x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest     94 k
 libstdc++              x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    297 k
 libstdc++-devel        x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    1.5 M
 libxcb                 x86_64    1.11-4.el7                ol7_latest    189 k
Installing for dependencies:
 nss-softokn-freebl     i686      3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2       ol7_latest    187 k
 zlib                   i686      1.2.7-15.el7              ol7_latest     90 k
Updating for dependencies:
 cpp                    x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    5.9 M
 gcc-gfortran           x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    6.6 M
 glibc-common           x86_64    2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6      ol7_latest     11 M
 glibc-headers          x86_64    2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6      ol7_latest    662 k
 libX11-common          noarch    1.6.3-2.el7               ol7_latest    161 k
 libgfortran            x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    292 k
 libgomp                x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    130 k
 libquadmath            x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest    182 k
 libquadmath-devel      x86_64    4.8.5-4.el7               ol7_latest     45 k
 nss-softokn-freebl     x86_64    3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2       ol7_latest    203 k
 zlib                   x86_64    1.2.7-15.el7              ol7_latest     89 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  20 Packages (+ 2 Dependent packages)
Upgrade  13 Packages (+11 Dependent packages)
 
Total download size: 71 M
Downloading packages:
No Presto metadata available for ol7_latest
(1/46): compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-72.el7.i686.rpm          | 196 kB   00:00     
(2/46): binutils-2.23.52.0.1-55.el7.x86_64.rpm             | 5.0 MB   00:01     
(3/46): cpp-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                         | 5.9 MB   00:01     
(4/46): gcc-c++-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                     | 7.2 MB   00:02     
(5/46): gcc-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                         |  16 MB   00:03     
(6/46): glibc-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.i686.rpm                | 4.2 MB   00:01     
(7/46): gcc-gfortran-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                | 6.6 MB   00:02     
(8/46): glibc-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64.rpm              | 3.6 MB   00:01     
(9/46): glibc-devel-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.i686.rpm          | 1.0 MB   00:00     
(10/46): glibc-devel-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64.rpm       | 1.0 MB   00:00     
(11/46): glibc-headers-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64.rpm     | 662 kB   00:00     
(12/46): ksh-20120801-22.el7_1.3.x86_64.rpm                | 880 kB   00:00     
(13/46): libX11-1.6.3-2.el7.i686.rpm                       | 609 kB   00:00     
(14/46): libX11-1.6.3-2.el7.x86_64.rpm                     | 605 kB   00:00     
(15/46): libX11-common-1.6.3-2.el7.noarch.rpm              | 161 kB   00:00     
(16/46): libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7.i686.rpm                     |  28 kB   00:00     
(17/46): libXext-1.3.3-3.el7.i686.rpm                      |  38 kB   00:00     
(18/46): libXext-1.3.3-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                    |  38 kB   00:00     
(19/46): libXi-1.7.4-2.el7.i686.rpm                        |  39 kB   00:00     
(20/46): libXi-1.7.4-2.el7.x86_64.rpm                      |  39 kB   00:00     
(21/46): libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el7.i686.rpm                    |  19 kB   00:00     
(22/46): libaio-0.3.109-13.el7.i686.rpm                    |  24 kB   00:00     
(23/46): libaio-0.3.109-13.el7.x86_64.rpm                  |  24 kB   00:00     
(24/46): libaio-devel-0.3.109-13.el7.i686.rpm              |  12 kB   00:00     
(25/46): glibc-common-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64.rpm      |  11 MB   00:04     
(26/46): libaio-devel-0.3.109-13.el7.x86_64.rpm            |  12 kB   00:00     
(27/46): libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7.i686.rpm                       | 102 kB   00:00     
(28/46): libgfortran-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                | 292 kB   00:00     
(29/46): libgomp-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                    | 130 kB   00:00     
(30/46): libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                     |  94 kB   00:00     
(31/46): libquadmath-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                | 182 kB   00:00     
(32/46): libquadmath-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm          |  45 kB   00:00     
(33/46): libstdc++-4.8.5-4.el7.i686.rpm                    | 310 kB   00:00     
(34/46): libstdc++-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                  | 297 kB   00:00     
(35/46): libstdc++-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.i686.rpm              | 1.5 MB   00:00     
(36/46): libstdc++-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64.rpm            | 1.5 MB   00:00     
(37/46): libxcb-1.11-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                      | 189 kB   00:00     
(38/46): libxcb-1.11-4.el7.i686.rpm                        | 201 kB   00:00     
(39/46): nss-softokn-freebl-3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2.x86_64.rpm | 203 kB   00:00     
(40/46): nss-softokn-freebl-3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2.i686.rpm   | 187 kB   00:00     
(41/46): unixODBC-devel-2.3.1-11.el7.x86_64.rpm            |  54 kB   00:00     
(42/46): unixODBC-2.3.1-11.el7.x86_64.rpm                  | 412 kB   00:00     
(43/46): zlib-1.2.7-15.el7.i686.rpm                        |  90 kB   00:00     
(44/46): zlib-1.2.7-15.el7.x86_64.rpm                      |  89 kB   00:00     
(45/46): zlib-devel-1.2.7-15.el7.x86_64.rpm                |  49 kB   00:00     
(46/46): zlib-devel-1.2.7-15.el7.i686.rpm                  |  49 kB   00:00     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                              5.2 MB/s |  71 MB  00:13     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Updating   : libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                   1/70 
  Updating   : glibc-common-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64                    2/70 
  Updating   : nss-softokn-freebl-3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2.x86_64               3/70 
  Updating   : glibc-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64                           4/70 
  Updating   : zlib-1.2.7-15.el7.x86_64                                    5/70 
  Updating   : libquadmath-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                              6/70 
  Updating   : libstdc++-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                7/70 
  Updating   : glibc-headers-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64                   8/70 
  Updating   : libX11-common-1.6.3-2.el7.noarch                            9/70 
  Installing : nss-softokn-freebl-3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2.i686                10/70 
  Installing : glibc-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.i686                            11/70 
  Installing : libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7.i686                                    12/70 
  Installing : glibc-devel-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.i686                      13/70 
  Updating   : libgfortran-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                             14/70 
  Updating   : cpp-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                     15/70 
  Updating   : binutils-2.23.52.0.1-55.el7.x86_64                         16/70 
  Updating   : libaio-0.3.109-13.el7.x86_64                               17/70 
  Installing : unixODBC-2.3.1-11.el7.x86_64                               18/70 
  Updating   : libgomp-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                 19/70 
  Updating   : gcc-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                     20/70 
  Updating   : libquadmath-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                       21/70 
  Updating   : libxcb-1.11-4.el7.x86_64                                   22/70 
  Updating   : libX11-1.6.3-2.el7.x86_64                                  23/70 
  Updating   : libXext-1.3.3-3.el7.x86_64                                 24/70 
  Updating   : libXi-1.7.4-2.el7.x86_64                                   25/70 
  Updating   : gcc-gfortran-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                            26/70 
  Installing : unixODBC-devel-2.3.1-11.el7.x86_64                         27/70 
  Installing : libaio-devel-0.3.109-13.el7.x86_64                         28/70 
  Updating   : glibc-devel-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64                    29/70 
  Updating   : libstdc++-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                         30/70 
  Installing : zlib-devel-1.2.7-15.el7.x86_64                             31/70 
  Installing : ksh-20120801-22.el7_1.3.x86_64                             32/70 
  Installing : libstdc++-4.8.5-4.el7.i686                                 33/70 
  Installing : libstdc++-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.i686                           34/70 
  Installing : libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7.i686                                  35/70 
  Installing : libxcb-1.11-4.el7.i686                                     36/70 
  Installing : libX11-1.6.3-2.el7.i686                                    37/70 
  Installing : libXext-1.3.3-3.el7.i686                                   38/70 
  Installing : libXi-1.7.4-2.el7.i686                                     39/70 
  Installing : libaio-0.3.109-13.el7.i686                                 40/70 
  Installing : zlib-1.2.7-15.el7.i686                                     41/70 
  Installing : zlib-devel-1.2.7-15.el7.i686                               42/70 
  Installing : libaio-devel-0.3.109-13.el7.i686                           43/70 
  Updating   : gcc-c++-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                 44/70 
  Installing : libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el7.i686                                 45/70 
  Installing : compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-72.el7.i686                      46/70 
  Cleanup    : gcc-gfortran-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                            47/70 
  Cleanup    : gcc-c++-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                 48/70 
  Cleanup    : libgfortran-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                             49/70 
  Cleanup    : libXi-1.7.2-2.1.el7.x86_64                                 50/70 
  Cleanup    : libquadmath-devel-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                       51/70 
  Cleanup    : libstdc++-devel-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                         52/70 
  Cleanup    : gcc-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                     53/70 
  Cleanup    : glibc-devel-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64                         54/70 
  Cleanup    : binutils-2.23.52.0.1-30.el7_1.2.x86_64                     55/70 
  Cleanup    : cpp-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                     56/70 
  Cleanup    : libstdc++-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                               57/70 
  Cleanup    : libXext-1.3.2-2.1.el7.x86_64                               58/70 
  Cleanup    : glibc-headers-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64                       59/70 
  Cleanup    : libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7.x86_64                                60/70 
  Cleanup    : libxcb-1.9-5.el7.x86_64                                    61/70 
  Cleanup    : zlib-1.2.7-13.el7.x86_64                                   62/70 
  Cleanup    : libgomp-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                 63/70 
  Cleanup    : libquadmath-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                             64/70 
  Cleanup    : libaio-0.3.109-12.el7.x86_64                               65/70 
  Cleanup    : libX11-common-1.6.0-2.1.el7.noarch                         66/70 
  Cleanup    : glibc-common-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64                        67/70 
  Cleanup    : nss-softokn-freebl-3.16.2.3-12.el7_1.x86_64                68/70 
  Cleanup    : glibc-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64                               69/70 
  Cleanup    : libgcc-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                  70/70 
  Verifying  : libXext-1.3.3-3.el7.x86_64                                  1/70 
  Verifying  : libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7.i686                                     2/70 
  Verifying  : gcc-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                      3/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-devel-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.i686                       4/70 
  Verifying  : libXext-1.3.3-3.el7.i686                                    5/70 
  Verifying  : libstdc++-4.8.5-4.el7.i686                                  6/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64                           7/70 
  Verifying  : libxcb-1.11-4.el7.i686                                      8/70 
  Verifying  : gcc-c++-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                  9/70 
  Verifying  : zlib-devel-1.2.7-15.el7.x86_64                             10/70 
  Verifying  : libaio-devel-0.3.109-13.el7.i686                           11/70 
  Verifying  : libX11-1.6.3-2.el7.x86_64                                  12/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-common-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64                   13/70 
  Verifying  : unixODBC-devel-2.3.1-11.el7.x86_64                         14/70 
  Verifying  : libXau-1.0.8-2.1.el7.i686                                  15/70 
  Verifying  : libaio-0.3.109-13.el7.i686                                 16/70 
  Verifying  : zlib-1.2.7-15.el7.x86_64                                   17/70 
  Verifying  : ksh-20120801-22.el7_1.3.x86_64                             18/70 
  Verifying  : libaio-0.3.109-13.el7.x86_64                               19/70 
  Verifying  : libXtst-1.2.2-2.1.el7.i686                                 20/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.i686                            21/70 
  Verifying  : libstdc++-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                               22/70 
  Verifying  : libX11-common-1.6.3-2.el7.noarch                           23/70 
  Verifying  : zlib-devel-1.2.7-15.el7.i686                               24/70 
  Verifying  : unixODBC-2.3.1-11.el7.x86_64                               25/70 
  Verifying  : libgfortran-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                             26/70 
  Verifying  : libstdc++-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.i686                           27/70 
  Verifying  : gcc-gfortran-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                            28/70 
  Verifying  : libaio-devel-0.3.109-13.el7.x86_64                         29/70 
  Verifying  : nss-softokn-freebl-3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2.x86_64              30/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-headers-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64                  31/70 
  Verifying  : zlib-1.2.7-15.el7.i686                                     32/70 
  Verifying  : libstdc++-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                         33/70 
  Verifying  : libXi-1.7.4-2.el7.x86_64                                   34/70 
  Verifying  : cpp-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                     35/70 
  Verifying  : compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-72.el7.i686                      36/70 
  Verifying  : libX11-1.6.3-2.el7.i686                                    37/70 
  Verifying  : libgomp-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                 38/70 
  Verifying  : libgcc-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                                  39/70 
  Verifying  : binutils-2.23.52.0.1-55.el7.x86_64                         40/70 
  Verifying  : libquadmath-devel-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                       41/70 
  Verifying  : libXi-1.7.4-2.el7.i686                                     42/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-devel-2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6.x86_64                    43/70 
  Verifying  : nss-softokn-freebl-3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2.i686                44/70 
  Verifying  : libquadmath-4.8.5-4.el7.x86_64                             45/70 
  Verifying  : libxcb-1.11-4.el7.x86_64                                   46/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-common-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64                        47/70 
  Verifying  : libX11-common-1.6.0-2.1.el7.noarch                         48/70 
  Verifying  : libxcb-1.9-5.el7.x86_64                                    49/70 
  Verifying  : libgfortran-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                             50/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64                               51/70 
  Verifying  : libaio-0.3.109-12.el7.x86_64                               52/70 
  Verifying  : cpp-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                     53/70 
  Verifying  : libstdc++-devel-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                         54/70 
  Verifying  : libX11-1.6.0-2.1.el7.x86_64                                55/70 
  Verifying  : gcc-gfortran-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                            56/70 
  Verifying  : libquadmath-devel-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                       57/70 
  Verifying  : libXi-1.7.2-2.1.el7.x86_64                                 58/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-devel-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64                         59/70 
  Verifying  : gcc-c++-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                 60/70 
  Verifying  : nss-softokn-freebl-3.16.2.3-12.el7_1.x86_64                61/70 
  Verifying  : libgcc-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                  62/70 
  Verifying  : binutils-2.23.52.0.1-30.el7_1.2.x86_64                     63/70 
  Verifying  : glibc-headers-2.17-78.0.1.el7.x86_64                       64/70 
  Verifying  : gcc-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                     65/70 
  Verifying  : zlib-1.2.7-13.el7.x86_64                                   66/70 
  Verifying  : libXext-1.3.2-2.1.el7.x86_64                               67/70 
  Verifying  : libstdc++-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                               68/70 
  Verifying  : libgomp-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                                 69/70 
  Verifying  : libquadmath-4.8.3-9.el7.x86_64                             70/70 
 
Installed:
  compat-libstdc++-33.i686 0:3.2.3-72.el7  glibc.i686 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6    
  glibc-devel.i686 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6  ksh.x86_64 0:20120801-22.el7_1.3     
  libX11.i686 0:1.6.3-2.el7                libXau.i686 0:1.0.8-2.1.el7          
  libXext.i686 0:1.3.3-3.el7               libXi.i686 0:1.7.4-2.el7             
  libXtst.i686 0:1.2.2-2.1.el7             libaio.i686 0:0.3.109-13.el7         
  libaio-devel.i686 0:0.3.109-13.el7       libaio-devel.x86_64 0:0.3.109-13.el7 
  libgcc.i686 0:4.8.5-4.el7                libstdc++.i686 0:4.8.5-4.el7         
  libstdc++-devel.i686 0:4.8.5-4.el7       libxcb.i686 0:1.11-4.el7             
  unixODBC.x86_64 0:2.3.1-11.el7           unixODBC-devel.x86_64 0:2.3.1-11.el7 
  zlib-devel.i686 0:1.2.7-15.el7           zlib-devel.x86_64 0:1.2.7-15.el7     
 
Dependency Installed:
  nss-softokn-freebl.i686 0:3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2     zlib.i686 0:1.2.7-15.el7    
 
Updated:
  binutils.x86_64 0:2.23.52.0.1-55.el7                                          
  gcc.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                                      
  gcc-c++.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                                  
  glibc.x86_64 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6                                           
  glibc-devel.x86_64 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6                                     
  libX11.x86_64 0:1.6.3-2.el7                                                   
  libXext.x86_64 0:1.3.3-3.el7                                                  
  libXi.x86_64 0:1.7.4-2.el7                                                    
  libaio.x86_64 0:0.3.109-13.el7                                                
  libgcc.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                                   
  libstdc++.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                                
  libstdc++-devel.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                          
  libxcb.x86_64 0:1.11-4.el7                                                    
 
Dependency Updated:
  cpp.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                                      
  gcc-gfortran.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                             
  glibc-common.x86_64 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6                                    
  glibc-headers.x86_64 0:2.17-106.0.1.el7_2.6                                   
  libX11-common.noarch 0:1.6.3-2.el7                                            
  libgfortran.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                              
  libgomp.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                                  
  libquadmath.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                              
  libquadmath-devel.x86_64 0:4.8.5-4.el7                                        
  nss-softokn-freebl.x86_64 0:3.16.2.3-14.2.el7_2                               
  zlib.x86_64 0:1.2.7-15.el7                                                    
 
Complete!

After you have installed the prerequisites, you install the oracle-dbms-server-12cR1-preinstall library as the root user. You run the command as the root user like this:

yum install -y oracle-dbms-server-12cR1-preinstall

You should see the following when it’s successful:

Loaded plugins: langpacks
adobe-linux-x86_64                                       |  951 B     00:00     
ol7_UEKR3                                                | 1.2 kB     00:00     
ol7_latest                                               | 1.4 kB     00:00     
(1/2): ol7_latest/x86_64/updateinfo                      | 829 kB     00:00     
(2/2): ol7_latest/x86_64/primary                         |  16 MB     00:02     
ol7_latest                                                          14500/14500
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall.x86_64 0:1.0-4.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package                                Arch     Version     Repository    Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall   x86_64   1.0-4.el7   ol7_latest    18 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package
 
Total download size: 18 k
Installed size: 43 k
Downloading packages:
oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall-1.0-4.el7.x86_64.rpm  |  18 kB   00:00     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall-1.0-4.el7.x86_64        1/1 
  Verifying  : oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall-1.0-4.el7.x86_64        1/1 
 
Installed:
  oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall.x86_64 0:1.0-4.el7                       
 
Complete!

After running the oracle-dbms-server-12cR1-preinstall library, you can navigate through the Applications, Sundry, and Users and Groups to see the following dialog:

OracleUserCreated

It’s hard to tell from the GUI the oracle user’s group. You can find oracle primary user’s group by checking the /etc/passwd file. You will find that oinstall is the primary user’s group.

As always, I hope this helps those trying to install an Oracle Database 12c instance. Please post a comment if you have a better way to load the pre-requisite packages.

Written by maclochlainn

May 31st, 2016 at 2:44 am

Using a Sparse Index

with 2 comments

My vacation from my blog is officially over. The question that I’m answering today is: How can you pass a set of non-sequential ID values to a function and return a result set? You can solve the problem by passing an ADT (Attribute Data Type) or UDT (User Defined Type) variable into a subquery of a cursor. The subquery leverages the TABLE function to translate the ADT or UDT into SQL result set, which is equivalent to a comma-delimited list of values.

You can also solve this problem with Native Dynamic SQL (NDS). However, the person who posed the question didn’t want to use NDS to build out a variable length list of comma-delimited numbers.

You need to create three object types for this example. They are:

  • a list of numbers
  • a record structure, declared as an object type without methods
  • a list of the record structure

These are the SQL commands to create the required data types:

CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE list_ids IS TABLE OF NUMBER;
/
CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE item_struct IS OBJECT
  ( item_id       NUMBER
  , item_title    VARCHAR2(80)
  , release_date  DATE );
/
CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE item_struct_list IS TABLE OF item_struct;
/

Next, you create a nonsynchronous function. It takes a sparsely populated list of values that map to the surrogate key of the column, which is typically the table’s primary key column. It returns a collection of the item_struct object type. This type of function is an object-table function.

The code follows:

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CREATE OR REPLACE
  FUNCTION nonsynchronous 
  ( pv_list_ids  LIST_IDS ) RETURN item_struct_list IS
    /* Declare a record data structure list. */
    lv_struct_list  ITEM_STRUCT_LIST := item_struct_list();
 
    /* Declare a sparsely indexed list of film items. */
    CURSOR get_items
    ( cv_list_ids  LIST_IDS ) IS
      SELECT   item_id AS item_id
      ,        item_title
      ||       CASE
                 WHEN item_subtitle IS NOT NULL THEN
                   ': '|| item_subtitle
               END AS item_title
      ,        release_date AS release_date
      FROM     item
      WHERE    item_id IN (SELECT *
                           FROM   TABLE(cv_list_ids))
      ORDER BY item_id;
BEGIN
  /* Lood through the sparsely populated list of numbers. */
  FOR i IN get_items(pv_list_ids) LOOP
    lv_struct_list.EXTEND;
    lv_struct_list(lv_struct_list.COUNT) := item_struct( item_id      => i.item_id
                                                       , item_title   => i.item_title
                                                       , release_date => i.release_date );
  END LOOP;
 
  /* Return the record structure list. */
  RETURN lv_struct_list;
END;
/

The foregoing nonsynchronous function uses a nested query that transforms to a result set on lines 18 and 19. In the execution block of the program, it uses a call to the item_struct structure to capture and assign row values to an element of the lv_struct_list variable.

You can now test the nonsynchronous function with the following query:

COL item_id      FORMAT 9999  HEADING "Item|ID #"
COL item_title   FORMAT A40   HEADING "Item Title"
COL release_date FORMAT A11   HEADING "Release|Date"
SELECT   *
FROM     TABLE(nonsynchronous(list_ids(1002, 1013, 1007)));

The query returns the record set as an ordered list in the result set, like:

Item					       Release
 ID # Item Title			       Date
----- ---------------------------------------- -----------
 1002 Star Wars I: Phantom Menace	       04-MAY-99
 1007 RoboCop				       24-JUL-03
 1013 The DaVinci Code			       19-MAY-06

I hope this answers the question about how to get results sets with sparsely populated ID values.

Written by maclochlainn

May 11th, 2016 at 1:37 am

Bash Arrays & MySQL

with 2 comments

Student questions are always interesting! They get me to think and to write. The question this time is: “How do I write a Bash Shell script to process multiple MySQL script files?” This post builds the following model (courtesy of MySQL Workbench) by using a bash shell script and MySQL script files, but there’s a disclaimer on this post. It shows both insecure and secure approaches and you should avoid the insecure ones.

LittleERDModel

It seems a quick refresher on how to use arrays in bash shell may be helpful. While it’s essential in a Linux environment, it’s seems not everyone masters the bash shell.

Especially, since I checked my Learning the Bash Shell (2nd Edition) and found a typo on how you handle arrays in the bash shell, and it’s a mistake that could hang newbies up (on page 161). Perhaps I should update my copy because I bought it in 1998. 😉 It was good then, and the new edition is probably better. The error is probably corrected in the current Learning the Bash Shell, but if not, the following examples show you how to use arrays in loops.

Naturally, these do presume some knowledge of working with bash shell, like the first line always is the same in any bash shell script. That you open an if-statement with an if and close it with a fi, and that you else-if is elif; and that a semicolon between a for-statement and the do statement is required when they’re on the same line because they’re two statements.

If you’re new to bash shell arrays, click on the link below to expand a brief tutorial. It takes you through three progressive examples of working with bash arrays.

Only one more trick needs to be qualified before our main MySQL examples. That trick is how you pass parameters to a bash shell script. For reference, this is the part that’s insecure because user command histories are available inside the Linux OS.

Here’s a hello_whom.sh script to demonstrates the concept of parameter passing:

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#!/usr/bin/bash
 
# This says hello to the argument while managing no argument.
if [[ ${#} = 1 ]]; then
  echo 'The '${0}' program says: "Hello '${1}'!"'
elif [[ ${#} > 1 ]]; then
  echo 'The '${0}' program wants to know if you have more than one name?'
else
  echo 'The '${0}' program wants to know if you have a name?'
fi

If you need more on how parameters are passed and managed, you can check a prior blob post on Handling bash Parameters, or check the bash help pages. The following leverages bash arrays to run scripts and query the MySQL database from the command line.

You will need the three batch SQL files first, so here they are:

The following list_mysql.sh shell script expects to receive the username, password, database and fully qualified path in that specific order. The script names are entered manually because this should be a unit test script. Naturally, you can extend the script to manage those parameters but as mentioned I see this type of solution as a developer machine only script to simplify unit testing. Anything beyond that is risky!

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#!/usr/bin/bash
 
# Assign user and password
username="${1}"
password="${2}"
database="${3}"
directory="${4}"
 
# List the parameter values passed.
echo "Username:  " ${username}
echo "Password:  " ${password}
echo "Database:  " ${database}
echo "Directory: " ${directory}
echo ""
 
# Define an array.
declare -a cmd
 
# Assign elements to an array.
cmd[0]="actor.sql"
cmd[1]="film.sql"
cmd[2]="movie.sql"
 
# Call the array elements.
for i in ${cmd[*]}; do
  mysql -s -u${username} -p${password} -D${database} < ${directory}/${i} > /dev/null 2>/dev/null
done
 
# Connect and pipe the query result minus errors and warnings to the while loop.
mysql -u${username} -p${password} -D${database} <<<'show tables' 2>/dev/null |
 
# Read through the piped result until it's empty but format the title.
while IFS='\n' read list; do
  if [[ ${list} = "Tables_in_sampledb" ]]; then
    echo $list
    echo "----------------------------------------"
  else
    echo $list
  fi
done
echo ""
 
# Connect and pipe the query result minus errors and warnings to the while loop.
mysql -u${username} -p${password} -D${database} <<<'SELECT CONCAT(a.actor_name," in ",f.film_name) AS "Actors in Films" FROM actor a INNER JOIN movie m ON a.actor_id = m.actor_id INNER JOIN film f ON m.film_id = f.film_id' 2>/dev/null |
 
# Read through the piped result until it's empty but format the title.
while IFS='\n' read actor_name; do
  if [[ ${actor_name} = "Actors in Films" ]]; then
    echo $actor_name
    echo "----------------------------------------"
  else
    echo $actor_name
  fi
done

The IFS (Internal Field Separator) works with whitespace by default. The IFS on lines 33 and 47 sets the IFS to a line return ('\n'). That’s the trick to display the data, and you can read more about the IFS in this question and answer post.

You can run this script with the following input parameters from the local directory where you deploy it. The a parameters are: (1) username, (2) password, (3) database, and (4) a fully qualified path to the SQL setup files.

./list_mysql.sh student student sampledb "/home/student/Code/bash/mysql"

With valid input values, the list_mysql.sh bash script generates the following output, which confirms inputs and verifies actions taken by the scripts with queries:

Username:   student
Password:   student
Database:   sampledb
Directory:  /home/student/Code/bash/mysql
 
Tables_in_sampledb
----------------------------------------
actor
film
movie
 
Actors in Films
----------------------------------------
Chris Hemsworth in Thor
Chris Hemsworth in Thor: The Dark World
Chris Pine in Star Trek
Chris Pine in Star Trek into Darkness
Chris Pine in Guardians of the Galaxy

If you forgot to provide the required inputs to the list_mysql.sh bash script, it alternatively returns the following output:

Username:  
Password:  
Database:  
Directory: 
 
./list_mysql.sh: line 25: /actor.sql: No such file or directory
./list_mysql.sh: line 25: /film.sql: No such file or directory
./list_mysql.sh: line 25: /movie.sql: No such file or directory

The secure way removes the password at a minimum! The refactored program will require you to manually enter the password for all elements of the array (three in this sample), and twice for the two queries. Here’s the refactored code:

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#!/usr/bin/bash
 
# Assign user and password
username="${1}"
database="${2}"
directory="${3}"
 
# List the parameter values passed.
echo "Username:  " ${username}
echo "Database:  " ${database}
echo "Directory: " ${directory}
echo ""
 
# Define an array.
declare -a cmd
 
# Assign elements to an array.
cmd[0]="actor.sql"
cmd[1]="film.sql"
cmd[2]="movie.sql"
 
# Call the array elements.
for i in ${cmd[*]}; do
  mysql -s -u${username} -p -D${database} < ${directory}/${i} > /dev/null 2>/dev/null
done
 
# Connect and pipe the query result minus errors and warnings to the while loop.
mysql -u${username} -p -D${database} <<<'show tables' 2>/dev/null |
 
# Read through the piped result until it's empty.
while IFS='\n' read list; do
  if [[ ${list} = "Tables_in_sampledb" ]]; then
    echo $list
    echo "----------------------------------------"
  else
    echo $list
  fi
done
echo ""
 
# Connect and pipe the query result minus errors and warnings to the while loop.
mysql -u${username} -p -D${database} <<<'SELECT CONCAT(a.actor_name," in ",f.film_name) AS "Actors in Films" FROM actor a INNER JOIN movie m ON a.actor_id = m.actor_id INNER JOIN film f ON m.film_id = f.film_id' 2>/dev/null |
 
# Read through the piped result until it's empty.
while IFS='\n' read actor_name; do
  if [[ ${actor_name} = "Actors in Films" ]]; then
    echo $actor_name
    echo "----------------------------------------"
  else
    echo $actor_name
  fi
done

Please let me know if you think there should be any more scaffolding for newbies in this post. As always, I hope this helps those looking for this type of solution.

Written by maclochlainn

May 17th, 2015 at 12:01 pm

Fedora PostgreSQL Install

without comments

Somebody asked how to put PostgreSQL on my Fedora image with Oracle Database 11g and MySQL. It’s fairly simple. You can check for the current download at yum.postgresql.org and then download it like this as the root user:

yum localinstall http://yum.postgresql.org/9.3/fedora/fedora-20-x86_64/pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch.rpm

You should see the following output when the download is successful, don’t forget to type y to complete the download:

Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch.rpm                              | 5.1 kB  00:00     
Examining /var/tmp/yum-root-2EPf_J/pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch.rpm: pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch
Marking /var/tmp/yum-root-2EPf_J/pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch.rpm to be installed
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pgdg-fedora93.noarch 0:9.3-1 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package           Arch       Version     Repository                       Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 pgdg-fedora93     noarch     9.3-1       /pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch     2.1 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package
 
Total size: 2.1 k
Installed size: 2.1 k
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
  Installing : pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch                                   1/1 
  Verifying  : pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch                                   1/1 
 
Installed:
  pgdg-fedora93.noarch 0:9.3-1                                                  
 
Complete!

After downloading the packages, you install with the following command:

yum install postgresql93-server

You should see the following output when the installation is successful, don’t forget to type y to complete the installation:

Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
pgdg93                                                      | 3.6 kB  00:00     
(1/2): pgdg93/20/x86_64/group_gz                            |  332 B  00:00     
(2/2): pgdg93/20/x86_64/primary_db                          |  84 kB  00:00     
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package postgresql93-server.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: postgresql93-libs(x86-64) = 9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 for package: postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: postgresql93(x86-64) = 9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 for package: postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: postgresql93 = 9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 for package: postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libpq.so.5()(64bit) for package: postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package postgresql93.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 will be installed
---> Package postgresql93-libs.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package                  Arch        Version                 Repository   Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 postgresql93-server      x86_64      9.3.5-1PGDG.f20         pgdg93      3.6 M
Installing for dependencies:
 postgresql93             x86_64      9.3.5-1PGDG.f20         pgdg93      1.0 M
 postgresql93-libs        x86_64      9.3.5-1PGDG.f20         pgdg93      203 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+2 Dependent packages)
 
Total download size: 4.8 M
Installed size: 22 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/3): postgresql93-libs-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64.rpm         | 203 kB  00:00     
(2/3): postgresql93-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64.rpm              | 1.0 MB  00:01     
(3/3): postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64.rpm       | 3.6 MB  00:02     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                              1.6 MB/s | 4.8 MB  00:02     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
  Installing : postgresql93-libs-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                     1/3 
  Installing : postgresql93-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                          2/3 
  Installing : postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                   3/3 
  Verifying  : postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                   1/3 
  Verifying  : postgresql93-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                          2/3 
  Verifying  : postgresql93-libs-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                     3/3 
 
Installed:
  postgresql93-server.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20                                  
 
Dependency Installed:
  postgresql93.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20                                         
  postgresql93-libs.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20                                    
 
Complete!

You can confirm the installation with the following command:

rpm -qa | grep postgres

It returns:

postgresql93-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
postgresql93-libs-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64

You’ve now installed PostgreSQL but did you really? If you’re asking that questions you have other questions. Let me try to answer them quickly, here:

You have installed PostgreSQL and created a postgres user. postgres is the owner of the PostgreSQL database. You can connect to the database as the postgres user without credentials because that’s where you administer the database. However, you can’t connect using ssh as the postgres user. You must use sudo to assume the root user’s privileges and then use the su command to become the postgres user.

If you just completed the installation, you are the root user. You can verify that with a call to the whoami utility:

whoami

It should return:

root

You connect as the postgres user with the su utility like this:

su - postgres

If you rerun the whoami command now, you should see:

postgres

You can start the PostgreSQL command-line utility (psql), like this:

psql

At the postgres (or psql) prompt, you can interactively confirm the setup of a database installation:

postgres=# SELECT setting as "Data Location"
postgres-# FROM   pg_settings
postgres-# WHERE  name = 'data_directory';

It should return the following:

      Data Location      
-------------------------
 /var/lib/pgsql/9.3/data
(1 row)

At this point, you should refer to this other blog post that shows you how to setup a new Database or Schema in PostgreSQL. You can find basic Postgres help files in this other blog post. As always, I hope this helps those timid about adding new software.

Written by maclochlainn

September 24th, 2014 at 2:43 am

PostgreSQL New Database

with one comment

How time flies, last March I explained how to install and configure PostgreSQL on Windows. It was my intent to start posting more content on PostgreSQL but I was distracted by another writing commitment on Oracle Database 12c PL/SQL Advanced Programming Techniques, which should be available in November. It tempted me away from PostgreSQL because I got to write about how to use Java inside Oracle Database 12c, which was fun. Having completed that, I’m back on task. Here’s the second entry on PostgreSQL. It shows you howto create your own database, database administrator role, user, and how to connect with psql CLI (Command Line Interface) as the new user.

  1. Create a user-defined video_db tablespace for your database. This requires that you know where the physical files where created when you installed PostgreSQL. You can discover the directory with the following query:
SELECT   setting AS "Data Location"
FROM     pg_settings
WHERE    name = 'data_directory';
            Data Location
--------------------------------------
 C:/Program Files/PostgreSQL/9.3/data
(1 row)

You create the video_db tablespace with the following syntax:

CREATE TABLESPACE video_db
  OWNER postgres
  LOCATION 'C:\Program Files\PostgreSQL\9.3\data';

You can check the presence of the video_db tablespace after creating it with the following query:

SELECT * FROM pg_tablespace;

It should print:

  spcname   | spcowner | spcacl | spcoptions
------------+----------+--------+------------
 pg_default |       10 |        |
 pg_global  |       10 |        |
 video_db   |       10 |        |
(3 rows)

It’s important to note for those new to PostgreSQL that the pg_global and pg_default tablespaces are creating when initializing the database. The pg_global holds shared tables and the pg_default holds everything else.

  1. Create a database that uses your user-defined video_db tablespace with the following two commands:
CREATE DATABASE videodb
  WITH OWNER = postgres
       ENCODING = 'UTF8'
       TABLESPACE = video_db
       LC_COLLATE = 'English_United States.1252'
       LC_CTYPE = 'English_United States.1252'
       CONNECTION LIMIT = -1;
 
COMMENT ON DATABASE videodb
  IS 'VideoDB';
  1. Create a database role, grant the super user privileges to the role, and create a user with the role. You can do that with the following three commands:
CREATE ROLE dba
  WITH SUPERUSER;
 
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON DATABASE videodb TO dba;
 
CREATE USER video
  WITH ROLE dba
       PASSWORD 'video';
  1. Connect to the new videodb database with the psql CLI as the video user. You can do that with the following OS command:
psql -d videodb -U video
  1. Once connected as the new video user, you can use a system information function to determine the current database:
SELECT current_database();

It should display:

 current_database
------------------
 videodb
(1 row)

There are many privilege options, and you should choose wisely which ones you use. As always, I hope this answers questions for other users.

Written by maclochlainn

July 24th, 2014 at 3:22 pm

Drop Types Recursively

with one comment

As covered in my new Oracle Database 12c PL/SQL Programming book (publisher’s satisfied), you can evolve object types. That means you can change a base object type and the change cascades through dependents. Somebody asked how to remove an object type chain without appending the FORCE clause.

It’s quite easy if you understand writing a recursive function in PL/SQL, as done here:

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-- Create a recursive function.
CREATE OR REPLACE
  FUNCTION drop_dependents
  (pv_base_object_type  VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER IS
 
  /* Declare a return data type. */
  lv_retval  NUMBER := 0;
 
  /* Declare item type. */
  lv_type_name    VARCHAR2(30);
  lv_object_name  VARCHAR2(30);
 
  /* The first part of the cursor finds the dependent type names of complex object 
     types, and the second part of the cursor finds the dependent collection types.
     Effectively the set operator finds two distinct branches because you may use
     any base type as an element of a complex object or of a collection. */
  CURSOR base_type 
  (cv_base_type  VARCHAR2) IS
    SELECT   uta.type_name
    ,        NULL AS object_name
    FROM     user_type_attrs uta INNER JOIN user_types ut
    ON       uta.attr_type_name = ut.type_name
    WHERE    ut.type_name = cv_base_type
    UNION ALL
    SELECT   uct.type_name
    ,        NULL AS object_name
    FROM     user_types ut INNER JOIN user_coll_types uct
    ON       ut.type_name = uct.elem_type_name
    WHERE    uct.elem_type_name = cv_base_type
    UNION ALL
    SELECT   CASE
               WHEN package_name IS NULL THEN
                 uo.object_type
               ELSE
                 'PACKAGE'
             END AS type_name
    ,        CASE
               WHEN package_name IS NULL THEN
                 ua.object_name
               ELSE
                 ua.package_name
             END AS object_name
    FROM     user_arguments ua LEFT JOIN user_objects uo
    ON       ua.package_name = uo.object_name
    OR       ua.object_name = uo.object_name
    WHERE    type_name = cv_base_type;
 
BEGIN
 
  /* Open a parameterized cursor. */  
  OPEN  base_type(pv_base_object_type);
 
  /* Loop through return records. */
  LOOP
    /* Fetch records. */
    FETCH base_type
    INTO  lv_type_name
    ,     lv_object_name;
 
    /* Drop type without dependents, or drop leaf node dependent. */
    IF base_type%NOTFOUND THEN
 
      /* Drop functions when they include an object type or object type
         dependent as a formal parameter type or return type. Drop
         procedures when they include an object type or object type
         dependent. Drop procedures when any function or procedure
         uses an object type or object type dependent. */
      IF lv_type_name IN ('FUNCTION','PACKAGE','PROCEDURE') THEN
 
        /* Drop the base type when no dependents are found. */
        EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DROP '||lv_type_name||' '||lv_object_name;
 
      ELSE
 
        /* Drop the base type when no dependents are found. */
        EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DROP TYPE '||pv_base_object_type;
 
      END IF;
 
      /* Set exit state to one or true. */
      lv_retval := 1;
 
      /* Exit the loop. */
      EXIT;
 
    ELSE
 
      /* A type must exclude function, package, and procedure; and the
         object name must be null before you recurse to another level. */
      IF lv_type_name NOT IN ('FUNCTION','PACKAGE','PROCEDURE') AND
         lv_object_name IS NOT NULL THEN
 
        /* Drop base type when no dependents are found. */
        lv_retval := drop_dependents(lv_type_name);
 
      END IF;
 
    END IF;
  END LOOP;
 
  /* Close open cursor. */
  CLOSE base_type;
 
  /* Return 0 for false. */
  RETURN lv_retval;
END;
/

Somebody asked me to provide a test case of a hierarchy of object types to support the drop_dependents function. So, here’s the test case code:

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-- Create object type.
CREATE OR REPLACE 
  TYPE item_object IS OBJECT
  ( item_name     VARCHAR2(30)
  , item_subname  VARCHAR2(30));
/
 
-- Create object type.
CREATE OR REPLACE 
  TYPE identified_object IS OBJECT
  ( identified_id      NUMBER
  , identified_object  item_object);
/
 
-- Create object collection.
CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE item_table IS TABLE OF item_object;
/
 
-- Create object collection.
CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE item_varray IS VARRAY(5) OF item_object;
/
 
-- Create object type.
CREATE OR REPLACE 
  TYPE item_async_table IS OBJECT
  ( item_name        VARCHAR2(30)
  , item_collection  item_table);
/
 
-- Create object type.
CREATE OR REPLACE 
  TYPE item_async_varray IS OBJECT
  ( item_name        VARCHAR2(30)
  , item_collection  item_varray);
/
 
-- Create object collection.
CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE item_list IS TABLE OF item_async_table;
/
 
-- Create object collection.
CREATE OR REPLACE
  TYPE item_array IS VARRAY(10) OF item_async_varray;
/
 
-- Create package specification.
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE item_package AS
 
  /* A published function of the package. */
  FUNCTION initialize_object
  ( id    NUMBER
  , name  NUMBER ) RETURN ITEM_OBJECT;
 
END item_package;
/
 
-- Create a schema function.
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_item_object
  ( pv_id    NUMBER
  , pv_name  NUMBER ) RETURN ITEM_OBJECT IS
 
  /* Declare a local variable. */
  lv_item_object   ITEM_OBJECT;
 
BEGIN
 
  /* Initialize the object type. */
  lv_item_object := item_object(pv_id, pv_name);  
 
  /* Return the dat type. */
  RETURN lv_item_object;
END;
/

If you call the function with the base type, it’ll drop the most dependent object type first, and the base object type last. The rest are dropped in their order of dependency. You can call a drop_dependents function with a base type, like ITEM_OBJECT, by using the following syntax:

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SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE UNLIMITED
BEGIN
  IF drop_dependents('ITEM_OBJECT') = 1 THEN
    dbms_output.put_line('Objects dropped.');
  END IF;
END;
/

Hope this helps those looking to drop a chain of object types in an Oracle database.

Written by maclochlainn

February 18th, 2014 at 3:39 am