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LAMP php-gd Libraries

with one comment

Everything seemed complete after configuring my standalone MySQL instance to a LAMP installation, but last night I started playing with the image files. It turns out that I failed to install the php-gd library.

There’s very little feedback when you try to troubleshoot why you can’t read an image. In fact, the error message for reading the BLOB from MySQL was only available on the local Firefox browser:

The image "http://localhost/ConvertMySQLBlobToImage.php" cannot be displayed because it contains errors.

The fix requires root to install the php-gd library with the yum utility:

yum install php-gd

You’ll need to answer y to one question during the installation:

Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
mysql-connectors-community                                  | 2.5 kB  00:00     
mysql-tools-community                                       | 2.5 kB  00:00     
mysql56-community                                           | 2.5 kB  00:00     
pgdg93                                                      | 3.6 kB  00:00     
updates/20/x86_64/metalink                                  |  16 kB  00:00     
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-gd.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libt1.so.5()(64bit) for package: php-gd-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package t1lib.x86_64 0:5.1.2-14.fc20 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package         Arch            Version                 Repository        Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 php-gd          x86_64          5.5.22-1.fc20           updates           89 k
Installing for dependencies:
 t1lib           x86_64          5.1.2-14.fc20           updates          164 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+1 Dependent package)
 
Total download size: 252 k
Installed size: 629 k
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/2): php-gd-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm                      |  89 kB  00:00     
(2/2): t1lib-5.1.2-14.fc20.x86_64.rpm                       | 164 kB  00:01     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                              157 kB/s | 252 kB  00:01     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
  Installing : t1lib-5.1.2-14.fc20.x86_64                                   1/2 
  Installing : php-gd-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                  2/2 
  Verifying  : php-gd-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                  1/2 
  Verifying  : t1lib-5.1.2-14.fc20.x86_64                                   2/2 
 
Installed:
  php-gd.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20                                                 
 
Dependency Installed:
  t1lib.x86_64 0:5.1.2-14.fc20                                                  
 
Complete!

After the installation, you can run the info.php program, which contains the following:

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<?php
  phpinfo();
?>

You’ll find the following gd library display in the result from the info.php program:

Linux_php_gd_library

After retesting, we get both large text and blob files displayed in the web page:

LAMPBlobTextPage

As always, I hope this helps others. Especially, those who are working with your LAMP stack implementation of images.

Written by maclochlainn

March 31st, 2015 at 6:20 pm

MySQL bind-address

without comments

While I try to keep things simple, sometimes eliminating options and explanations comes back to haunt me. After posting how to open a Fedora firewall port for a LAMP stack, somebody got trapped by my instructions for installing MySQL on Fedora. They got stuck because they had the following setting in their /etc/my.cnf file:

bind-address=localhost.localdomain

I’d suggested using that bind-address value for a DHCP VMware Fedora installation in Step #7. I was trying to create an example for an isolated testing instance, which is why I set the bind-address to a localhost.localdomain value. They raised the following error when they tried to connect their base operating system’s version of MySQL Workstation to the Fedora VM:

Failed to Connect to MySQL at 192.168.2.168:3306 with user student

or, this dialog image:

MySQLBindAddr01

Before you do the next step, please ensure you’re using the right IP address. You can find that by running this command as an authorized sudoer:

ifconfig | grep inet.*netmask.*broadcast

In this case, the command returns:

        inet 192.168.2.168  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.2.255

I’ve since added instructions to the older post to set the bind-address value in the my.cnf file as follows when they want to support external connections (naturally that means authorizing port 3306):

bind-address=0.0.0.0

After you reset the /etc/my.cnf file, you must stop and start, or restart the mysqld service. You can do that as the root user like this:

systemctl restart mysqld

Then, you can test a student user connection from MySQL Workbench like this:

MySQLBindAddr02

If the student user is authorized and the password is correct, you’ll see that the connection now works:

MySQLBindAddr03

As always, I hope this helps those working through similar issues.

Written by maclochlainn

March 29th, 2015 at 10:30 pm

Open Fedora Port 80

with 4 comments

After installing the LAMP stack on Fedora, you need to open port 80 in the Firewall to access the PHP programs on the Fedora instance from external servers. You can open a firewall port by launching the firewall-config application as the root user with the following syntax:

firewall-config

The firewall-config utility opens the following dialog:

FedoraFirewall1

Click on the Ports tab, and you’ll see the following:

FedoraFirewall2

Skip this step if you only want to set the runtime privilege to the port. Click on the Runtime tab and change it to Permanent if you want the port to be accessible when you reboot your OS.

FedoraFirewallPermanent

Click on Add button to add a port exception, and you’ll see the following:

FedoraFirewall3

Enter Port 80 for the Apache server unless you used a different value for the Apache server’s listener port. If you’re not sure open the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf file and check for the following line (default value shown):

Listen 80

Click the OK button to set the port exception. Then, you can connect to the Linux machine with the IP address, a DNS name, or a name you resolve in your local hosts file, like:

http://192.168.2.1/query.php

You can find the IP address of your Fedora image by inspecting the /etc/hosts file or capture a DHCP assigned address with the following command as the root user (or with sudo as a valid sudoer user):

ifconfig -a

It should return the following image, which is based on the data stored in MySQL’s studentdb database, as qualified in yesterday’s blog post:

ExternalWebPage

I hope this helps those setting up a LAMP instance to work with the MySQL database.

Written by maclochlainn

March 29th, 2015 at 12:35 am

Fedora Install LAMP

with 9 comments

My students wanted an extra credit assignment, so I thought a LAMP configuration and test would be appropriate. The only problem was I hadn’t added it to their course VMware instance. So, here are the instructions to install Apache2, PHP, and MySQLi for a complete LAMP stack when MySQL is already installed.

The post builds on my Fedora Install of MySQL and MySQL Workbench on Fedora posts from last year. It also presumes that you’ve installed a studentdb database but you need to know how to do that let me know (but it hasn’t changed much from the example at the bottom of this old MySQL 5.1 blog post).

You install Apache2 with the following command as the root user, or with the sudo command as a sudoer-list user:

yum install httpd

The following displays the results of starting the yum utility to install httpd, and you need to reply with a y to complete the installation:

Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
mysql-connectors-community                                  | 2.5 kB  00:00     
mysql-tools-community                                       | 2.5 kB  00:00     
mysql56-community                                           | 2.5 kB  00:00     
pgdg93                                                      | 3.6 kB  00:00     
updates/20/x86_64/metalink                                  |  16 kB  00:00     
updates                                                     | 4.9 kB  00:00     
updates/20/x86_64/primary_db                                |  13 MB  00:04     
(1/2): updates/20/x86_64/updateinfo                         | 1.9 MB  00:02     
(2/2): updates/20/x86_64/pkgtags                            | 1.4 MB  00:01     
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.10-2.fc20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: httpd-tools = 2.4.10-2.fc20 for package: httpd-2.4.10-2.fc20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: system-logos-httpd for package: httpd-2.4.10-2.fc20.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package fedora-logos-httpd.noarch 0:21.0.1-1.fc20 will be installed
---> Package httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.4.10-2.fc20 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package                  Arch         Version              Repository     Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 httpd                    x86_64       2.4.10-2.fc20        updates       1.2 M
Installing for dependencies:
 fedora-logos-httpd       noarch       21.0.1-1.fc20        fedora         28 k
 httpd-tools              x86_64       2.4.10-2.fc20        updates        79 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+2 Dependent packages)
 
Total download size: 1.3 M
Installed size: 4.0 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/3): fedora-logos-httpd-21.0.1-1.fc20.noarch.rpm          |  28 kB  00:00     
(2/3): httpd-2.4.10-2.fc20.x86_64.rpm                       | 1.2 MB  00:01     
(3/3): httpd-tools-2.4.10-2.fc20.x86_64.rpm                 |  79 kB  00:00     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                              815 kB/s | 1.3 MB  00:01     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
  Installing : httpd-tools-2.4.10-2.fc20.x86_64                             1/3 
  Installing : fedora-logos-httpd-21.0.1-1.fc20.noarch                      2/3 
  Installing : httpd-2.4.10-2.fc20.x86_64                                   3/3 
  Verifying  : httpd-2.4.10-2.fc20.x86_64                                   1/3 
  Verifying  : fedora-logos-httpd-21.0.1-1.fc20.noarch                      2/3 
  Verifying  : httpd-tools-2.4.10-2.fc20.x86_64                             3/3 
 
Installed:
  httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.10-2.fc20                                                  
 
Dependency Installed:
  fedora-logos-httpd.noarch 0:21.0.1-1.fc20  httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.4.10-2.fc20 
 
Complete!

Next, you install php as the root user with the following command:

yum install php

The following displays when you install php, and you need to reply with a y to complete the installation:

Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: php-common(x86-64) = 5.5.22-1.fc20 for package: php-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: php-cli(x86-64) = 5.5.22-1.fc20 for package: php-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-cli.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20 will be installed
---> Package php-common.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: php-pecl-jsonc(x86-64) for package: php-common-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-pecl-jsonc.x86_64 0:1.3.6-1.fc20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: /usr/bin/pecl for package: php-pecl-jsonc-1.3.6-1.fc20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: /usr/bin/pecl for package: php-pecl-jsonc-1.3.6-1.fc20.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-pear.noarch 1:1.9.5-6.fc20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: php-xml for package: 1:php-pear-1.9.5-6.fc20.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: php-posix for package: 1:php-pear-1.9.5-6.fc20.noarch
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-process.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20 will be installed
---> Package php-xml.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package               Arch          Version               Repository      Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 php                   x86_64        5.5.22-1.fc20         updates        2.6 M
Installing for dependencies:
 php-cli               x86_64        5.5.22-1.fc20         updates        3.9 M
 php-common            x86_64        5.5.22-1.fc20         updates        1.0 M
 php-pear              noarch        1:1.9.5-6.fc20        updates        343 k
 php-pecl-jsonc        x86_64        1.3.6-1.fc20          updates         34 k
 php-process           x86_64        5.5.22-1.fc20         updates         77 k
 php-xml               x86_64        5.5.22-1.fc20         updates        247 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+6 Dependent packages)
 
Total download size: 8.2 M
Installed size: 32 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/7): php-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm                         | 2.6 MB  00:03     
(2/7): php-cli-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm                     | 3.9 MB  00:03     
(3/7): php-common-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm                  | 1.0 MB  00:00     
(4/7): php-pear-1.9.5-6.fc20.noarch.rpm                     | 343 kB  00:00     
(5/7): php-pecl-jsonc-1.3.6-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm               |  34 kB  00:00     
(6/7): php-process-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm                 |  77 kB  00:00     
(7/7): php-xml-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm                     | 247 kB  00:00     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                              1.1 MB/s | 8.2 MB  00:07     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
  Installing : php-cli-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                 1/7 
  Installing : php-process-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                             2/7 
  Installing : php-xml-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                 3/7 
  Installing : 1:php-pear-1.9.5-6.fc20.noarch                               4/7 
  Installing : php-common-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                              5/7 
  Installing : php-pecl-jsonc-1.3.6-1.fc20.x86_64                           6/7 
  Installing : php-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                     7/7 
  Verifying  : php-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                     1/7 
  Verifying  : php-common-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                              2/7 
  Verifying  : php-cli-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                 3/7 
  Verifying  : 1:php-pear-1.9.5-6.fc20.noarch                               4/7 
  Verifying  : php-process-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                             5/7 
  Verifying  : php-xml-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                 6/7 
  Verifying  : php-pecl-jsonc-1.3.6-1.fc20.x86_64                           7/7 
 
Installed:
  php.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20                                                    
 
Dependency Installed:
  php-cli.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20        php-common.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20      
  php-pear.noarch 1:1.9.5-6.fc20        php-pecl-jsonc.x86_64 0:1.3.6-1.fc20   
  php-process.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20    php-xml.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20         
 
Complete!

After installing the software, you can set the Apache server to start automatically with the following command:

chkconfig httpd on

However, that command only starts the Apache server the next time you boot the server. You use the following command as the root user to start the Apache server:

apachectl start

You can verify the installation with the following command as the root user:

ps -ef | grep httpd | grep -v grep

It should return:

root      5433     1  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
apache    5434  5433  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
apache    5435  5433  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
apache    5436  5433  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
apache    5437  5433  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
apache    5438  5433  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
apache    5442  5433  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

and, then verify the listening port with the following command as the root user:

netstat -tulpn | grep :80

It should return the following when both the Apache server is listening on port 80 and the Oracle multi-protocol server is listening on port 8080:

tcp6       0      0 :::80                   :::*                    LISTEN      5433/httpd          
tcp6       0      0 :::8080                 :::*                    LISTEN      1505/tnslsnr

After verifying the connection, you can test it by creating the traditional info.php program file in the /var/www/http directory. The file should contain the following:

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<?php
  phpinfo();
?>

You can test it by opening the Firefox browser and entering the following URL from the Fedora Linux image:

http://localhost/info.php

It should display the typical diagnostic page. This verifies the configuration of the Apache and PHP servers. The next step verifies whether you have the mysqli library to connect to the MySQL database.

You create a mysqli_check.php script, like this:

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<html>
<header>
<title>Static Query Object Sample</title>
<style type="text/css">
  /* HTML element styles. */
  table {background:white;border-style:solid;border-width:3px;border-color:black;border-collapse:collapse;}
  th {text-align:center;font-style:bold;background:lightgray;border:solid 1px gray;}
  td {border:solid 1px gray;}
 
  /* Class tag element styles. */
  .ID {min-width:50px;text-align:right;}
  .Label {min-width:200px;text-align:left;}
</style>
</header>
<body>
<?php
  if (!function_exists('mysqli_init') && !extension_loaded('mysqli')) {
    print 'mysqli not installed.'; }
  else {
    print 'mysqli installed.'; }
?>
</script>
</body>
</html>

You can test it with the following URL from the local browser:

http://localhost/mysqli_check.php

If it’s installed you can skip the next step, but if not you need to run yum in expert mode as follows (the check for php-mysql isn’t really necessary because it’s too old a version but good practice):

[root@localhost etc]# yum shell
Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
> remove php-mysql
No Match for argument: php-mysql
> install php-mysqlnd
> run
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-mysqlnd.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: php-pdo(x86-64) = 5.5.22-1.fc20 for package: php-mysqlnd-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-pdo.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
================================================================================
 Package             Arch           Version               Repository       Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 php-mysqlnd         x86_64         5.5.22-1.fc20         updates         293 k
Installing for dependencies:
 php-pdo             x86_64         5.5.22-1.fc20         updates         141 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+1 Dependent package)
 
Total download size: 433 k
Installed size: 1.4 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/2): php-mysqlnd-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm                 | 293 kB  00:00     
(2/2): php-pdo-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64.rpm                     | 141 kB  00:00     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                              427 kB/s | 433 kB  00:01     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
  Installing : php-pdo-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                 1/2 
  Installing : php-mysqlnd-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                             2/2 
  Verifying  : php-pdo-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                                 1/2 
  Verifying  : php-mysqlnd-5.5.22-1.fc20.x86_64                             2/2 
 
Installed:
  php-mysqlnd.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20                                            
 
Dependency Installed:
  php-pdo.x86_64 0:5.5.22-1.fc20                                                
 
Finished Transaction
> quit

You should note that this also installed PDO. One caveat, before you rerun the mysqli_check.php script from a browser, you need to restart the Apache server. You can do that as the root user with the following syntax:

apachectl restart

You can retest it with the following URL from the local browser:

http://localhost/mysqli_check.php

At this point you should have everything installed to test your connection the MySQL database. As mentioned, this example extends my instructions for installing MySQL on the Fedora instance.

The following query.php file tests your ability to connect to the MySQL database with the mysqli driver, and it uses the studentdb and video store example from my Oracle Database 11g and MySQL 5.6 Developer Handbook:

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<html>
<header>
<title>Static Query Object Sample</title>
<style type="text/css">
  /* HTML element styles. */
  table {background:white;border-style:solid;border-width:3px;border-color:black;border-collapse:collapse;}
  th {text-align:center;font-style:bold;background:lightgray;border:solid 1px gray;}
  td {border:solid 1px gray;}
 
  /* Class tag element styles. */
  .ID {min-width:50px;text-align:right;}
  .Label {min-width:200px;text-align:left;}
</style>
</header>
<body>
<?php
  // Assign credentials to connection.
  $mysqli = new mysqli("localhost", "student", "student", "studentdb");
 
  // Check for connection error and print message.
  if ($mysqli->connect_errno) {
    print $mysqli->connect_error."<br />";
    print "Connection not established ...<br />";
  }
  else {
 
    // Declare a static query.
    $query = "SELECT au.system_user_id, au.system_user_name FROM system_user au" ;
 
    // Loop through a result set until completed.  
    do {
 
      // Attempt query and exit with failure before processing.
      if (!$stmt = $mysqli->query($query)) {
 
        // Print failure to resolve query message.
        print $mysqli->error."<br />";
        print "Failed to resolve query ...<br />";
      }     
      else {
 
        // Print the opening HTML table tag.
        print '<table><tr><th class="ID">ID</th><th class="Label">User Role Name</th></tr>';
 
        // Fetch a row for processing.
        while( $row = $stmt->fetch_row() ) {
 
          // Print the opening HTML row tag.
          print "<tr>";
 
          // Loop through the row's columns.
          for ($i = 0;$i < $mysqli->field_count;$i++) {
            // Handle column one differently.
            if ($i == 0)
              print '<td class="ID">'.$row[$i]."</td>";
            else
              print '<td class="Label">'.$row[$i]."</td>";
          }
          // Print the closing HTML row tag.
          print "</tr>"; 
        }
      }
    } while( $mysqli->next_result());
 
  // Print the closing HTML table tag.
  print "</table>"; 
 
  // Release connection resource.
  $mysqli->close(); }
?>
</script>
</body>
</html>

This should display the following in the browser:

FedoraConfigMySQLPHP

You can see how to open port 80 for the Apache server in this blog post. If you want to work with blob data types, you’ll also need to use yum to install the php-gd library. You can read my LAMP php-gd library blog post to learn how to install the libraries. As always, I hope a step-by-step approach without assumptions helps those learning MySQL.

Written by maclochlainn

March 28th, 2015 at 7:41 pm

Lowercase Table Names

with 6 comments

A student posed the question about why table names are case sensitive. That’s because case sensitive table names are the default installation, as qualified in the MySQL documentation. You can verify that with the following query:

SELECT CASE
         WHEN @@lower_case_table_names = 1 THEN
           'Case insensitive tables'
         ELSE
           'Case sensitive tables.'
         END AS "Table Name Status";

The default value returned on Linux is:

+------------------------+
| Table Name Status      |
+------------------------+
| Case sensitive tables. |
+------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The default value for the lower_case_table_names value on the Windows OS is 1 not 0 because you can inadvertently create a lowercase and case sensitive table when you write an INSERT statement and use a lowercase table name. I’ve provided that detail in a reply comment to this blog post.

You can change the default by adding the following parameter in the my.cnf file on Linux or the my.ini file on Windows:

# Make all tables case insensitive.
lower_case_table_names=1

This lets you enter tables in upper or mixed case, and stores them in the data catalog as lowercase table names.

Written by maclochlainn

March 22nd, 2015 at 11:53 am

Fedora PostgreSQL Install

without comments

Somebody asked how to put PostgreSQL on my Fedora image with Oracle Database 11g and MySQL. It’s fairly simple. You can check for the current download at yum.postgresql.org and then download it like this as the root user:

yum localinstall http://yum.postgresql.org/9.3/fedora/fedora-20-x86_64/pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch.rpm

You should see the following output when the download is successful, don’t forget to type y to complete the download:

Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch.rpm                              | 5.1 kB  00:00     
Examining /var/tmp/yum-root-2EPf_J/pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch.rpm: pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch
Marking /var/tmp/yum-root-2EPf_J/pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch.rpm to be installed
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pgdg-fedora93.noarch 0:9.3-1 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package           Arch       Version     Repository                       Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 pgdg-fedora93     noarch     9.3-1       /pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch     2.1 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package
 
Total size: 2.1 k
Installed size: 2.1 k
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
  Installing : pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch                                   1/1 
  Verifying  : pgdg-fedora93-9.3-1.noarch                                   1/1 
 
Installed:
  pgdg-fedora93.noarch 0:9.3-1                                                  
 
Complete!

After downloading the packages, you install with the following command:

yum install postgresql93-server

You should see the following output when the installation is successful, don’t forget to type y to complete the installation:

Loaded plugins: langpacks, refresh-packagekit
pgdg93                                                      | 3.6 kB  00:00     
(1/2): pgdg93/20/x86_64/group_gz                            |  332 B  00:00     
(2/2): pgdg93/20/x86_64/primary_db                          |  84 kB  00:00     
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package postgresql93-server.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: postgresql93-libs(x86-64) = 9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 for package: postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: postgresql93(x86-64) = 9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 for package: postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: postgresql93 = 9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 for package: postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libpq.so.5()(64bit) for package: postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package postgresql93.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 will be installed
---> Package postgresql93-libs.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
================================================================================
 Package                  Arch        Version                 Repository   Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 postgresql93-server      x86_64      9.3.5-1PGDG.f20         pgdg93      3.6 M
Installing for dependencies:
 postgresql93             x86_64      9.3.5-1PGDG.f20         pgdg93      1.0 M
 postgresql93-libs        x86_64      9.3.5-1PGDG.f20         pgdg93      203 k
 
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+2 Dependent packages)
 
Total download size: 4.8 M
Installed size: 22 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/3): postgresql93-libs-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64.rpm         | 203 kB  00:00     
(2/3): postgresql93-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64.rpm              | 1.0 MB  00:01     
(3/3): postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64.rpm       | 3.6 MB  00:02     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                              1.6 MB/s | 4.8 MB  00:02     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction (shutdown inhibited)
  Installing : postgresql93-libs-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                     1/3 
  Installing : postgresql93-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                          2/3 
  Installing : postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                   3/3 
  Verifying  : postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                   1/3 
  Verifying  : postgresql93-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                          2/3 
  Verifying  : postgresql93-libs-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64                     3/3 
 
Installed:
  postgresql93-server.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20                                  
 
Dependency Installed:
  postgresql93.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20                                         
  postgresql93-libs.x86_64 0:9.3.5-1PGDG.f20                                    
 
Complete!

You can confirm the installation with the following command:

rpm -qa | grep postgres

It returns:

postgresql93-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
postgresql93-server-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64
postgresql93-libs-9.3.5-1PGDG.f20.x86_64

You’ve now installed PostgreSQL. Hope this helps those timid about adding new software.

Written by maclochlainn

September 24th, 2014 at 2:43 am

MySQL Image Architecture

with 14 comments

The LinkedIn MySQL DB Development group posed a questions on how to handle images. Naturally, the argument always goes: Should images be deployed in the database or the file system? I believe they should be stored in the database because the cost and time associated is too high with regard to managing files, a file naming schema, and backing up the file system discretely from the database.

Since there’s a significant difference between the backup of transactional data and image data, they should be placed in different databases. The imagedb database is where you would place the images and large text descriptions, as shown in the MySQL Workbench ERD:

imagedb ERD

The imagedb ERD splits the foreign key references back to the system_user table, which contains the individual user credentials. The system_user table serves as the Access Control List (ACL) for the application.

Until I get a chance to write the code for this model, you can refer to the generic PHP/MySQL solution from several years back (its code source was last tested with PHP 5.3). As always, I hope this helps.

Written by maclochlainn

February 23rd, 2014 at 2:02 am

MySQL Book in Chinese

without comments

MySQL_JohnSinOne of my old students and lab assistants stopped by to show his fiancée the BYU-Idaho campus. It was a long trip since he lives in Macao, China.

He kindly brought me a copy of my Oracle Database 11g and MySQL 5.6 Developer Handbook in simplified Chinese. He’s holding it in the photo.

That makes three books translated into Chinese, which made my day. It’ll be interesting to see if the new MySQL Workbench: Data Modeling & Development book gets translated into Chinese too. Oddly, I never hear about this from the publisher first.

The cover emphasized only the Dolphin, not the Oracle logo material. It made me wonder, how many MySQL users there might be in China. If anybody from China catches the post, it would be great to hear about the MySQL Community in China.

Likewise, if anybody in China catches the post and reads the book, please let me know if you liked it. 😉 Naturally, let me know if you found any problems with it too. By the way, I keep an errata for the book here.

Written by maclochlainn

May 23rd, 2013 at 9:58 pm

Posted in LAMP,MySQL,Oracle

Tagged with ,

Zend 6 & Timezones

with one comment

Just went through all my PHP testing against a fresh instance of Oracle with Zend Server Community Edition 6, and found these warnings, guess that’s pretty clean for the Oracle part of the installation. I didn’t notice it before because generally I do most of my PHP development against a MySQL database. I should have been configuring the php.ini file routinely, as qualified in this PHP forum discussion.

Warning: oci_set_client_info(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in C:\Program Files (x86)\Zend\Apache2\htdocs\Oracle\Db.php on line 47
Warning: oci_set_module_name(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in C:\Program Files (x86)\Zend\Apache2\htdocs\Oracle\Db.php on line 48
Warning: oci_set_action(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in C:\Program Files (x86)\Zend\Apache2\htdocs\Oracle\Db.php on line 69

Turns out Zend 6 doesn’t automatically set the [Date] elements in the php.ini file, which is required for the oci_set_client_info(), oci_set_module_name(), and oci_set_action() functions of the OCI. You can find the php.ini file in the C:\Program Files (x86)\Zend\ZendServer\etc folder on Windows:

[Date]
; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions
; http://php.net/date.timezone
;date.timezone =
 
; http://php.net/date.default-latitude
;date.default_latitude = 31.7667
 
; http://php.net/date.default-longitude
;date.default_longitude = 35.2333
 
; http://php.net/date.sunrise-zenith
;date.sunrise_zenith = 90.583333
 
; http://php.net/date.sunset-zenith
;date.sunset_zenith = 90.583333

You can find the values for date.timezone here. Update the date.timezone as follows:

date.timezone = America/Denver

Then, reboot the Zend Server, and it fixes the warning messages.

Written by maclochlainn

May 23rd, 2013 at 11:21 am

Common Lookup Tables 2

with 2 comments

Last October I posted an example and description of a common_lookup table. It was intended to show how common_lookup tables support drop down selections in web forms. However, it wasn’t adequate to show how they work with existing data, and the function only supported fresh queries.

This post goes to the next level, and shows how to use foreign keys to preselect values for display in web forms. It also rewrites the prior function so that it supports querying existing data and inserting new data.

Let’s start with data stored in join between two tables – the member and contact tables. The internal lookup uses the customers name from the contact table to find the membership account information in the member table.

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SELECT   m.account_number
,        m.member_type         -- A fk to common_lookup table.
,        m.credit_card_number
,        m.credit_card_type    -- A fk to common_lookup table.
,        c.first_name
,        c.middle_name
,        c.last_name
,        c.contact_type        -- A fk to common_lookup table.
FROM     member m INNER JOIN contact c
ON       m.member_id = c.member_id
WHERE    c.first_name = 'Harry'
AND      c.middle_name = 'James'
AND      c.last_name = 'Potter'\G

It returns the results on the left, while a set of joins against the common_lookup table returns the results on the right (both use the \G in SQL Monitor to display the data vertically).

CommonLookupQueryResults01CommonLookupQueryResults01b

The member_type, credit_card_type, and contact_type columns in the data set on the left hold foreign key values. They’re copies of values found in the primary key column of the common_lookup table. You have the option of using these values to connect the data through a join or through function calls. A join requires three copies of the common_lookup table and yields the data displayed on the right above. The query to get the meaningful business information from the common_lookup table is:

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SELECT   m.account_number
,        cl1.common_lookup_meaning
,        m.credit_card_number
,        cl2.common_lookup_meaning
,        c.first_name
,        c.middle_name
,        c.last_name
,        cl3.common_lookup_meaning
FROM     member m INNER JOIN contact c
ON       m.member_id = c.member_id INNER JOIN common_lookup cl1
ON       cl1.common_lookup_id = m.member_type INNER JOIN common_lookup cl2
ON       cl2.common_lookup_id = m.credit_card_type INNER JOIN common_lookup cl3
ON       cl3.common_lookup_id = c.contact_type
WHERE    c.first_name = 'Harry'
AND      c.middle_name = 'James'
AND      c.last_name = 'Potter'\G

The data returned from any query is symmetrical, which means all columns return the same number of rows. The results of the preceding query are the business results. Although, they’re not what you’d want to display in a web form that presents the ability to change values, like the member, credit card, or contact types. You need to get that information by using the foreign key as a parameter to a function call, and in this case three function calls. One for each of the foreign keys from the original query results. The result is an asymmetric collection of data would look like the following conceptually with Lily Luna Potter as the customer (note the green row is the symmetrical return set from the preceding query):

AsymmetricalQueryData

The f(x) represents a generic function call where the x substitutes for the foreign key value as a lookup key to the primary key value of the common_lookup table. The function in this case is a query that returns a two column list. One column holds the primary key value of the (common_lookup_id) and the other holds the customer facing description (from the common_lookup_meaning column).

These steps describe the process:

  1. Use the natural key (the user name) to find the data in the contact table.
  2. Use the member_id foreign key column in the contact table to link to the same name column primary key in the member table by joining the two rows.
  3. Use the foreign keys in the new row (combining columns from the contact and member tables) as call parameters to a PHP function that returns all possible foreign key values and their business descriptions in a web form.

The vertical choices displayed above map to OPTION tag elements of an HTML SELECT tag. The blue highlighted value contains an instruction, Select Type, in the display of an HTML OPTION tag, and it holds a null as the value of the VALUE attribute for the OPTION tag. The other displayed rows are the possible values. The green highlighted value is the currently selected value and the yellow highlighted values are alternate possibilities for an end-user to select. The logic for that process is in the PHP get_common_lookup function below.

Having discussed the structure of the data and problem, we’ll present the result in a dynamically constructed web form below. The display form shows a member account with customer information.

CommonLookupQueryResults02

You should note that the primary and foreign keys aren’t displayed because they’re irrelevant to the business process. Primary and foreign keys only serve to support relationships when we use surrogate keys as the primary key of a table. Only the meaningful information from the common_lookup table are displayed in the preceding form. Behind the web form, the primary and foreign key values are critical to maintaining anomaly free table data.

Each of the drop downs contains the full selection of possibilities from the common_lookup table, and an end-user could choose a new value by clicking on any of the drop down fields. For example, the following displays the selection of a type of credit card:

CommonLookupQueryResults03

The user can click on the drop down, and then navigate from the selection to a new selection. Assuming we don’t change anything, submitting the form should transmit the foreign key column values. The following shows that’s exactly what it does:

CommonLookupQueryResults04

As you can see from the screen shot it works easily. Below is the PHP code for a MySQL credentials file and the get_lookup function. The function lets you find an existing value or returns a set of unique values for you to choose from.

You should rename the following credentials.php file as MySQLCredentials.inc for it to work in the file below it.

Assuming you’ve implemented the credentials.php file as the MySQLCredentials.inc file, you can now implement the following file. The get_common_lookup function returns a <SELECT> tag with a list embedded of <OPTION> tags with values; one <OPTION> tag is selected when the foreign key matches a valid primary key value in the common_lookup table; and no <OPTION> tag is selected when the foreign key doesn’t match a a valid primary key value in the common_lookup table. The last possibility means a user must choose a new valid value for the foreign key column when the foreign key column is constrained as a mandatory or not null column.

The code for the web form is a bit more complex, as shown below. It contains three separate calls to the modified get_common_lookup function (on lines 104, 111, and 126). Each call to the get_common_lookup function selects the list of possible values and highlights the value associated with the foreign key value.

Here’s the web form code. You should note that it only returns a single row of data from the query by using a natural key from the contact table.

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<html>
<header>
<title>Select Option Sample</title>
<style type="text/css">
  /* Class tag element styles. */
  .box {border:1px solid;padding:0px;width:392px;background-color:silver;}
  .bottomBox {border-left:1px solid;border-right:1px solid;border-bottom:1px solid;padding:5px;width:380px;background-color:silver;}
  .middleBox {border:1px solid;padding:5px;width:380px;background-color:silver;}
  .topBox {border-left:1px solid;border-right:1px solid;border-top:1px solid;padding:5px;width:380px;background-color:silver;}
  .button {margin:5px;background-color:lightblue;font-weight:bold;align:right;}
  .clear {clear:left;}
  .dropDown {min-width:50px;display:block;float:left;text-align:left;color:black;}
  .formDownLabel {width:90px;display:block;float:left;margin:5px;text-align:right;vertical-align:bottom;color:black;}
  .formAcrossLabel {width:80px;display:block;float:left;padding-bottom:0px;margin:5px 5px 0px;text-align:left;vertical-align:bottom;font-style:italic;font-size:90%;color:black;}
  .formInput {min-width:150px;margin:5px;text-align:left;}
  .formShortInput {width:80px;margin:5px;text-align:left;}
  .title1 {margin-left:0px;font-weight:bold;font-style:italic;font-size:125%;color:black;}
  .title2 {margin-left:5px;font-weight:bold;font-style:italic;font-size:105%;color:black;}
</style>
</header>
<body>
<?php
 
  // Include libraries.
  include_once("MySQLCredentials.inc");
  include_once("library.inc");
 
  // Define a HTML page string.
  $out = '';
 
  // Declare input variables.
  $first_name = (isset($_GET['first_name'])) ? $_GET['first_name'] : $first_name = "Harry";
  $middle_name = (isset($_GET['middle_name'])) ? $_GET['middle_name'] : $middle_name = "James";
  $last_name = (isset($_GET['last_name'])) ? $_GET['last_name'] : $last_name = "Potter";
 
  // Declare output variables.
  $member_account_number = null;
  $credit_card_number = null;
 
  // Declare lookup input and output (initialized as nulls to suppress warnings) variables.  
  $member_table = 'member';
  $member_type = 'member_type';
  $member_type_id = null;
  $credit_card_type = 'credit_card_type';
  $credit_card_type_id = null;
  $contact_table = 'contact';
  $contact_type = 'contact_type';
  $contact_type_id = null;
 
  // Assign credentials to connection.
  $mysqli = new mysqli(HOSTNAME, USERNAME, PASSWORD, DATABASE);
 
  // Check for connection error and print message.
  if ($mysqli->connect_errno) {
    print $mysqli->connect_error."<br />";
    print "Connection not established ...<br />";
  }
  else {
    // Initial statement.
    $stmt = $mysqli->stmt_init();
 
    // Declare a static query.
    $sql = "SELECT   m.account_number\n"
         . ",        m.member_type\n"
         . ",        m.credit_card_number\n"
         . ",        m.credit_card_type\n"
         . ",        c.first_name\n"
         . ",        c.middle_name\n"
         . ",        c.last_name\n"
         . ",        c.contact_type\n"
         . "FROM     member m INNER JOIN contact c\n"
         . "ON       m.member_id = c.member_id\n"
         . "WHERE    c.first_name = ?\n"
         . "AND      c.middle_name = ?\n"
         . "AND      c.last_name = ?\n";
 
    // Prepare statement.
    if ($stmt->prepare($sql)) {
      $stmt->bind_param("sss",$first_name,$middle_name,$last_name); } 
 
    // Attempt query and exit with failure before processing.
    if (!$stmt->execute()) {
 
      // Print failure to resolve query message.
      print $mysqli->error."<br />";
      print "Failed to resolve query ...<br />";
    }
    else {   
      // This query only returns one row, and an empty block follows the while logic.
      $stmt->bind_result($member_account_number, $member_type_id, $credit_card_number, $credit_card_type_id, $first_name, $middle_name, $last_name, $contact_type_id);
      while ($stmt->fetch()) {}
    }
  }
 
  // Print the query form.
  $out .= '<form method="post" name="myForm" action="submitItemType.php">';
  $out .= '<label class="title1">Membership Account Information</label><br />';
  $out .= '<div class="box">';
  $out .= '<div class="topBox">';
  $out .= '<label class="formDownLabel">Account #</label><input class="formInput" type="text" value="'.$member_account_number.'" />';
  $out .= '<select name="member_type" size="1" onChange="change(this.form.member_type)">';
 
  // Get dynamic membership type lookup string fragment.
  $out .= get_common_lookup($member_table, $member_type, $member_type_id);
 
  $out .= '</select><br />';
  $out .= '<label class="formDownLabel">Credit Card #</label><input class="formInput" type="text" value="'.$credit_card_number.'" />';
  $out .= '<select name="credit_card_type" size="1" onChange="change(this.form.credit_card_type)">';
 
  // Get dynamic credit card type lookup string fragment.
  $out .= get_common_lookup($member_table, $credit_card_type, $credit_card_type_id);
 
  // Print the closing HTML table tag.
  $out .= '</select><br />';
  $out .= '</div>';
  $out .= '<div class="middleBox">';
  $out .= '<label class="formDownLabel">&nbsp;</label>';
  $out .= '<label class="formAcrossLabel">First Name</label><label class="formAcrossLabel">Middle Name</label><label class="formAcrossLabel">Last Name</label><br class="clear" />';
  $out .= '<label class="formDownLabel">Customer</label><input class="formShortInput" type="text" value="'.$first_name.'" />';
  $out .= '<input class="formShortInput" type="text" value="'.$middle_name.'" />';
  $out .= '<input class="formShortInput" type="text" value="'.$last_name.'" /><br />';
  $out .= '<label class="formDownLabel">Type</label>';
  $out .= '<select style="margin:5px" name="contact_type" size="1" onChange="change(this.form.contact_type)">';
 
  // Get dynamic membership type lookup string fragment.
  $out .= get_common_lookup($contact_table, $contact_type, $contact_type_id);
 
  $out .= '</select><br />';
  $out .= '</div>';
  $out .= '<div class="bottomBox">';
  $out .= '<input class="button" style="margin-left:300px" name="submit" type="submit" value="Submit">';
  $out .= '</div>';
  $out .= '</form>';
  $out .= '</body>';
  $out .= '</html>';
 
  print $out;
?>
</body>
</html>

The submit button simply runs another web page that prints the actual values for the drop down selections. Here’s the code to print that:

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<html>
<head>
</head>
<body>
<?php
  // Print the surrogate key values for the common_lookup_id column.
  print "MEMBER_TYPE -> [".$_POST['member_type']."]<br />";
  print "CREDIT_CARD_TYPE -> [".$_POST['credit_card_type']."]<br />";
  print "CONTACT_TYPE -> [".$_POST['contact_type']."]<br />";
?>
</body>
</html>

I hope this helps those who are interested in sorting how to implement a common_lookup table.

Written by maclochlainn

February 1st, 2013 at 1:47 am