MacLochlainns Weblog

Michael McLaughlin's Technical Blog

Site Admin

Archive for the ‘MySQL Trigger’ Category

MySQL Triggers with Logging

with one comment

Somebody asked why you can’t implement MySQL triggers that write information when you want to stop the DML statement, like autonomous procedures in Oracle. The question was a surprise but I didn’t find anything on it, so here’s how you can do it. This is more or less like an autonomous process by leveraging both the InnoDB and MyISAM engine’s behaviors. This post leverages an earlier explanation of MySQL Triggers.

  1. First you create a MyISAM table, which is a persistent store that auto commits when you’re other InnoDB tables can be transactionally dependent. Here’s a simple MyISAM logger table.
CREATE TABLE logger
( logger_id         INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY
, logger_event      VARCHAR(50)
, logger_table      VARCHAR(50)
, logger_instring   VARCHAR(100)
, logger_outstring  VARCHAR(100)
, created_by        INT UNSIGNED
, creation_date     DATE
, last_updated_by   INT UNSIGNED
, last_update_date  DATE) ENGINE=MyISAM;
  1. Next, you create an on-insert trigger that changes an input but doesn’t stop the transaction. It also writes to the logger MyISAM table in the scope of the transaction.
CREATE TRIGGER contact_insert
BEFORE INSERT ON contact
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
 
  /* Check if last name contains a white space. */
  IF new.last_name REGEXP '^.* .*$' THEN
 
    /* Insert into an MyISAM table, which auto commits in the scope
       of a transaction. */
    INSERT INTO logger
    VALUES ( null
           ,'insert'
           ,'contact'
           , new.last_name
           , REPLACE(new.last_name,' ','-')
           , new.created_by
           , new.creation_date
           , new.last_updated_by
           , new.last_update_date );
 
    /* Replace the name for the INSERT INTO the CONTACT table. */
    SET new.last_name := REPLACE(new.last_name,' ','-');
  END IF;
END;
$$

  1. Next, you create an on-update trigger that changes an update while aborting the transaction. It also writes to the logger MyISAM table because its outside the InnoDB scope of a transaction and auto committed on insert.
CREATE TRIGGER contact_update
BEFORE UPDATE ON contact
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
 
  /* Check if last name contains a white space. */
  IF new.last_name REGEXP '^.* .*$' THEN
 
    /* Insert into an MyISAM table, which auto commits in the scope
       of a transaction. */
    INSERT INTO logger
    VALUES ( null
           ,'update'
           ,'contact'
           , new.last_name
           , null           
           , old.created_by
           , old.creation_date
           , new.last_updated_by
           , new.last_update_date );
 
    /* Throw an exception to force the business user to see they
       can't update a last name with a white space. */
    SIGNAL SQLSTATE '42000';
  END IF;
END;
$$

  1. Next, you create a test case with an INSERT and UPDATE statement that meets the condition of the triggers.
/* Insert a row meeting the trigger condition. */
INSERT INTO contact VALUES
( null, 1001, 1003,'Catherine', null,'Zeta Jones', 1001, UTC_DATE(), 1001, UTC_DATE());
 
/* Update a row meeting the trigger condition. */
UPDATE contact
SET    last_name = 'Zeta Jones'
,      last_updated_by = 1003
,      last_update_date = UTC_DATE()
WHERE  last_name = 'Zeta-Jones';

  1. Last, query the logger table. You have a record inserted for both the allowed behavior and the aborted behavior. This means you have the ability to capture material that should never be inserted or updated into a table and who did it by leveraging the who-audit columns of the table.
SELECT * FROM logger;

It returns:

+-----------+--------------+--------------+-----------------+------------------+------------+---------------+-----------------+------------------+
| logger_id | logger_event | logger_table | logger_instring | logger_outstring | created_by | creation_date | last_updated_by | last_update_date |
+-----------+--------------+--------------+-----------------+------------------+------------+---------------+-----------------+------------------+
|         1 | insert       | contact      | Zeta Jones      | Zeta-Jones       |       1001 | 2013-04-26    |            1001 | 2013-04-26       |
|         2 | update       | contact      | Zeta Jones      | NULL             |       1001 | 2013-04-26    |            1003 | 2013-04-26       |
+-----------+--------------+--------------+-----------------+------------------+------------+---------------+-----------------+------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This effectively delivers in MySQL the equivalent of an autonomous transaction in Oracle. The result from the non-critical trigger records the before and after value, while the results from the critical update trigger only record the before values because the event is aborted by raising an error in the trigger. As always, I hope this helps somebody looking for a solution.

Written by maclochlainn

April 25th, 2013 at 11:01 pm

MySQL Database Triggers

with 3 comments

One of the students wanted an equivalent example to an Oracle DML trigger sample that replaces a white space in a last name with a dash for an INSERT statement. Apparently, the MySQL trigger example in the Oracle Database 11g and MySQL 5.6 Developer Handbook was a bit long. I have to agree with that because the MySQL DML trigger demonstrated cursors and loops in the trigger code.

Triggers can be statement- or row-level actions. Although some databases let you define statement-level triggers, MySQL doesn’t support them. MySQL only supports row-level triggers. Row-level triggers support critical or non-critical behaviors. Critical behavior means the trigger observes an insert, update, or delete that must be stopped, which means it raises an error. Non-critical behavior means the trigger observes a DML statement and logs it or implements a change during the context of the DML activity.

The first example shows you non-critical behavior. It observes an attempt to enter a two-part last name, and replaces the white space with a dash (you can find help on MySQL Regular Expressions in this other post). This means the trigger ensures compliance on how names are entered in the database, which should be protected in the web form (through JQuery or JavaScript) and the database.

DELIMITER $$
DROP TRIGGER IF EXISTS contact_insert$$
 
CREATE TRIGGER contact_insert
BEFORE INSERT ON contact
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  IF new.last_name REGEXP '^.* .*$' THEN
    SET new.last_name := REPLACE(new.last_name,' ','-');
  END IF;
END;
$$
 
DELIMITER ;

The problem with implementing a non-critical trigger is that the database performs the work but clerks entering the data don’t learn the business rule. A critical trigger simply disallows non-conforming data entry. The next program shows a critical behavior with an UPDATE statement row-level trigger. After all, won’t a data entry clerk update the entry with a white space after the INSERT statement didn’t?

Yes, that was a rhetorical question. Spelling out the business rule in the UPDATE statement row-level trigger should educate the persistent errant behavior. While letting the INSERT statement row-level trigger manage the behavior probably saves time for most end-users who make a casual mistake.

DELIMITER $$
DROP TRIGGER IF EXISTS contact_update$$
 
CREATE TRIGGER contact_update
BEFORE UPDATE ON contact
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  IF new.last_name REGEXP '^.* .*$' THEN
    SIGNAL SQLSTATE '42000';
  END IF;
END;
$$
 
DELIMITER ;

Somebody wanted to know why I choose SQLSTATE 42000. That’s because it signals an error in the SQL statement, and that’s the closest existing SQLSTATE to the actual behavior that exists. Moreover, the error identified by the critical trigger signals non-compliance with the application’s SQL standards that protects the data.

Hopefully, this helps somebody looking for a MySQL database trigger example that raises an exception. The example works with MySQL 5.5 forward because the critical trigger uses the SIGNAL feature, which was introduced in MySQL 5.5. Another article shows you how to leverage MyISAM tables to create a logging mechanism for critical event triggers, and you click this link to the MySQL Triggers with Logging blog entry.

Written by maclochlainn

November 22nd, 2012 at 11:32 pm