# MacLochlainns Weblog

Michael McLaughlin's Technical Blog

## Querying an Object Type

I demonstrated a number of SQL approaches to reading object types in Appendix B of the Oracle Database 12c PL/SQL Programming book. For example, the easiest one to construct and return the results from a TO_STRING member function uses the TREAT function:

SELECT TREAT(base_t() AS base_t).to_string() AS "Text" FROM dual;

However, it seems that I could have provided one more. Here’s an example of how you can test the construction of an object type and how you can return its attributes with a query. It’s important to note that there’s a natural problem with this syntax when you increment a sequence inside the object type. The problem is that it double increments the counter for the sequence.

SELECT * FROM TABLE(SELECT CAST(COLLECT(base_t()) AS base_t_tab) FROM dual);

The syntax for the COLLECT function requires that you put it inside a SELECT-list. Then, the CAST function converts a single instance of the BASE_T object type to a one element BASE_T_TAB collection. Finally, the TABLE function returns a single row from the BASE_T_TAB collection.

Written by maclochlainn

November 25th, 2014 at 12:33 am

## Finding Direct Indexes

If you’re not using Toad DBA Suite, it’s sometimes hard to find solutions. Somebody wanted to know how to find indexes that aren’t indirect. Indirect indexes are those created for a primary key because a primary key column or set of columns are both not null and uniquely constrained. Likewise, you create a unique index when you can create a unique constraint. You can’t drop a unique index for a primary key without dropping the primary key or unique constraint that indirectly created it.

The following query returns indexes with one or more columns that are created by a CREATE INDEX statement on a target table. It excludes unique indexes created by a primary key constraint, and it returns the relative position of columns in an index:

COLUMN sequence_name FORMAT A22 HEADING "Sequence Name" COLUMN column_position FORMAT 999 HEADING "Column|Position" COLUMN column_name FORMAT A22 HEADING "Column|Name" SELECT ui.index_name , uic.column_position , uic.column_name FROM user_indexes ui INNER JOIN user_ind_columns uic ON ui.index_name = uic.index_name AND ui.table_name = uic.table_name WHERE ui.table_name = UPPER('&&table_name') AND NOT ui.index_name IN (SELECT constraint_name FROM user_constraints WHERE table_name = UPPER('&&table_name')) ORDER BY ui.index_name , uic.column_position;

It can be rewritten into a function, which can then drop indexes based on a table name:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION drop_indexes_on ( pv_table_name VARCHAR2 ) RETURN NUMBER IS   /* A return value. */ lv_return NUMBER := 0;   /* A query to return only directly created indexes. */ CURSOR find_indexes_on ( cv_table_name VARCHAR2 ) IS SELECT DISTINCT ui.index_name FROM user_indexes ui INNER JOIN user_ind_columns uic ON ui.index_name = uic.index_name AND ui.table_name = uic.table_name WHERE ui.table_name = UPPER(cv_table_name) AND NOT ui.index_name IN (SELECT constraint_name FROM user_constraints WHERE table_name = UPPER(cv_table_name));   /* Declare function autonomous. */ PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION;   BEGIN   /* Drop the indexes on a table. */ FOR i IN find_indexes_on(pv_table_name) LOOP EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DROP INDEX '||i.index_name; lv_return := 1; END LOOP;   RETURN lv_return; END drop_indexes_on; /

You can call the drop_on_indexes_on function like this:

SELECT drop_indexes_on(UPPER('address_lab')) FROM dual;

Hope this helps those who need to work with dropping indexes.

Written by maclochlainn

November 23rd, 2014 at 8:42 pm

## Parsing DBMS_OUTPUT

Testing with DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE is always a bit of a problem when you have strings longer than 80 characters in length, which occurs more frequently with Oracle Database 12c. An example of managing output occurs when you want to print a string with embedded line breaks. My solution is the following parse_rows procedure:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE parse_rows ( pv_text VARCHAR2 ) IS   /* Declare parsing indexes. */ lv_start NUMBER := 1; lv_end NUMBER := 1; lv_length NUMBER;   BEGIN   /* Assign an end value based on parsing line return or length. */ IF INSTR(pv_text,CHR(10),lv_start) = 0 THEN lv_end := LENGTH(pv_text) + 1; ELSE lv_end := INSTR(pv_text,CHR(10),lv_start); END IF;   /* Assign a length value to the parsed string. */ lv_length := lv_end - lv_start;   /* Print first line. */ dbms_output.put_line(SUBSTR(pv_text,lv_start,lv_length));   /* Print the rows of a multiple line string. */ WHILE (lv_end < LENGTH(pv_text)) LOOP   /* Assign a new start value. */ lv_start := lv_end + 1;   /* Assign a new end value. */ IF INSTR(pv_text,CHR(10),lv_start + 1) = 0 THEN lv_end := LENGTH(pv_text) + 1; ELSE lv_end := INSTR(pv_text,CHR(10),lv_start + 1); END IF;   /* Assign a new length. */ lv_length := lv_end - lv_start;   /* Print the individual rows. */ dbms_output.put_line(SUBSTR(pv_text,lv_start,lv_length));   END LOOP; END; /

Here’s the example of a test program for the procedure:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DECLARE /* Declare text. */ lv_text VARCHAR2(200) := 'This is too much'||CHR(10)||'information'||CHR(10)||'on one line.'; BEGIN parse_rows(lv_text); END; /

It prints the following:

1 2 3 This is too much information on one line.

Hope this benefits those looking for quick solution.

Written by maclochlainn

May 21st, 2014 at 12:35 am

## Oracle 12c VARCHAR2?

The Oracle Database 12c documentation says you can set the maximum size of a VARCHAR2 to 32,767 bytes. That’s true except when you’re trying to map a large Java string to a VARCHAR2. It fails when the physical size of the Java string is greater than 4,000 bytes with an ORA-01002 or fetch out of sequence error.

SELECT read_text_file('C:\Data\loader\Hobbit1.txt') * ERROR at line 1: ORA-24345: A Truncation or null fetch error occurred   ERROR: ORA-01002: fetch out of sequence

You need to grant privileges before you can test this code. You can grant privileges by connecting as the SYS user of a CDB (or non-multitenant database) or as the ADMIN user of a PDB with the AS SYSDBA clause. Then, you run the following command to grant external file access to the JVM inside Oracle Database 12c:

BEGIN DBMS_JAVA.GRANT_PERMISSION('IMPORTER' ,'SYS:java.io.FilePermission' ,'C:\Data\Loader\Hobbit1.txt' ,'read'); END; /

The IMPORTER is a PDB user name, or a non-multitenant database user name. Please note that permissions must be granted on each physical file.

Here’s the code that raises the error when the external file is greater than 4,000 bytes:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 CREATE OR REPLACE AND COMPILE JAVA SOURCE NAMED "ReadFile" AS // Java library imports. import java.io.File; import java.io.BufferedReader; import java.io.FileNotFoundException; import java.io.IOException; import java.io.FileReader; import java.security.AccessControlException;   // Class definition. public class ReadFile { // Define class variables. private static File file; private static FileReader inTextFile; private static BufferedReader inTextReader; private static StringBuffer output = new StringBuffer(); private static String outLine, outText;   // Define readText() method. public static String readText(String fromFile) throws AccessControlException, IOException { // Read file. try { // Initialize File. file = new File(fromFile);   // Check for valid file. if (file.exists()) {   // Assign file to a stream. inTextFile = new FileReader(file); inTextReader = new BufferedReader(inTextFile);   // Read character-by-character. while ((outLine = inTextReader.readLine()) != null) { output.append(outLine + "\n"); }   // Assing the StringBuffer to a String. outText = output.toString();   // Close File. inTextFile.close(); } else { outText = new String("Empty"); }} catch (IOException e) { outText = new String(""); return outText; } return outText; }} /

The PL/SQL wrapper should look like this:

1 2 3 4 5 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION read_text_file (from_file VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'ReadFile.readText(java.lang.String) return java.lang.String'; /

Then, you can query it like so:

SELECT read_text_file('C:\Data\loader\Hobbit1.txt') FROM dual;

You can avoid the error by returning the Java file size as a CLOB data type with the following Java source code.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 CREATE OR REPLACE AND COMPILE JAVA SOURCE NAMED "ReadFile" AS // Java library imports. import java.io.File; import java.io.BufferedReader; import java.io.FileNotFoundException; import java.io.IOException; import java.io.FileReader; import java.security.AccessControlException; import java.sql.*; import oracle.sql.driver.*; import oracle.sql.*;   // Class definition. public class ReadFile { // Define class variables. private static int i; private static File file; private static FileReader inTextFile; private static BufferedReader inTextReader; private static StringBuffer output = new StringBuffer(); private static String outLine, outText; private static CLOB outCLOB;   // Define readText() method. public static oracle.sql.CLOB readText(String fromFile) throws AccessControlException, IOException, SQLException { // Read file. try { // Initialize File. file = new File(fromFile);   // Check for valid file. if (file.exists()) {   // Assign file to a stream. inTextFile = new FileReader(file); inTextReader = new BufferedReader(inTextFile);   // Read character-by-character. while ((outLine = inTextReader.readLine()) != null) { output.append(outLine + "\n"); }   // Assing the StringBuffer to a String. outText = output.toString();   // Declare an Oracle connection. Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:default:connection:");   // Transfer the String to CLOB. outCLOB = CLOB.createTemporary((oracle.jdbc.OracleConnectionWrapper) conn, true, CLOB.DURATION_SESSION); i = outCLOB.setString(1,outText);   // Close File. inTextFile.close(); } else { i = outCLOB.setString(1,"Empty"); }} catch (IOException e) { i = outCLOB.setString(1,""); return outCLOB; } return outCLOB; }} /

The wrapper changes to return a CLOB and map a java.sql.CLOB as the return type of the Java library. This command works:

1 2 3 4 5 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION read_clob_file (from_file VARCHAR2) RETURN CLOB IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'ReadFile.readText(java.lang.String) return oracle.sql.CLOB'; /

You now query the PL/SQL wrapper with this type of effective SQL*Plus command-line command:

COLUMN atext FORMAT A60 HEADING "Text" COLUMN asize FORMAT 99,999 HEADING "Size"   SELECT read_clob_file('C:\Data\loader\Hobbit1.txt') AS AText , LENGTH(read_clob_file('C:\Data\loader\Hobbit1.txt')) AS ASize FROM dual;

As always, I hope this helps somebody.

Written by maclochlainn

May 7th, 2014 at 3:03 am

## Best UTL_FILE Practice

In a post a couple days ago, I promised to provide a best practice approach to reading external files with the UTL_FILE package. My first assumption is that you’re reading unstructured data because structured data is best read by external tables because external tables can read data much faster with the PARALLEL option.

My second assumption is that you’re you don’t know how to use or choose not to use the DBMS_LOB package; specifically, the loadclobfromfile and loadblobfromfile procedures. By the way, Chapter 10 of the Oracle Database 12c PL/SQL Programming has several complete examples using the DBMS_LOB package. My third assumption is that you’d like the external file packaged as a whole, which means you want it returned as a CLOB or BLOB data type.

Here’s a generic function that achieves that and avoids the nonsense with closing the file in the exception handler, or worse yet, wrapping it in another PL/SQL schema-level function:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION read_file_to_clob ( pv_location VARCHAR2 , pv_file_name VARCHAR2 ) RETURN CLOB IS   /* Declare local input variables. */ lv_location VARCHAR2(60); lv_file_name VARCHAR2(40);   /* Declare a file reference pointer and buffer. */ lv_file UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; -- File reference lv_line VARCHAR2(32767); -- Reading buffer   /* Declare local sizing variables. */ lv_file_size NUMBER; lv_line_size NUMBER; lv_read_size NUMBER :=0;   /* Declare local file attribute data. */ lv_file_exists BOOLEAN := FALSE; lv_block_size BINARY_INTEGER;   /* Declare a control variable and return CLOB variable. */ lv_enable BOOLEAN := FALSE; lv_return CLOB; BEGIN /* Declare local input variables. */ lv_location := pv_location; lv_file_name := pv_file_name;   /* Check for open file and close when open. */ IF utl_file.is_open(lv_file) THEN utl_file.fclose(lv_file); END IF;   /* Read the file attributes to get the physical size. */ utl_file.fgetattr( location => lv_location , filename => lv_file_name , fexists => lv_file_exists , file_length => lv_file_size , block_size => lv_block_size );   /* Open only files that exist. */ IF lv_file_exists THEN   /* Create a temporary CLOB in memory. */ dbms_lob.createtemporary(lv_return, FALSE, dbms_lob.CALL);   /* Open the file for read-only of 32,767 byte lines. */ lv_file := utl_file.fopen( location => lv_location , filename => lv_file_name , open_mode => 'R' , max_linesize => 32767);     /* Read all lines of a text file. */ WHILE (lv_read_size < lv_file_size) LOOP /* Read a line of text until the eof marker. */ utl_file.get_line( file => lv_file , buffer => lv_line );   /* Add the line terminator or 2 bytes to its length. */ lv_line := NVL(lv_line,'')||CHR(10); lv_read_size := lv_read_size + LENGTH(NVL(lv_line,CHR(10))) + 2;   /* Write to an empty CLOB or append to an existing CLOB. */ IF NOT lv_enable THEN /* Write to the temporary CLOB variable. */ dbms_lob.WRITE( lv_return, LENGTH(lv_line), 1, lv_line);   /* Set the control variable. */ lv_enable := TRUE; ELSE /* Append to the temporary CLOB variable. */ dbms_lob.writeappend( lv_return, LENGTH(lv_line),lv_line); END IF; END LOOP;   /* Close the file. */ utl_file.fclose(lv_file); END IF;   /* This line is never reached. */ RETURN lv_return; EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN utl_file.fclose(lv_file); RAISE NO_DATA_FOUND; END; /

You can test the function with the following:

SET LONG 100000 SET PAGESIZE 999   SELECT read_file_to_clob('SomeVirtualDirectory','TextFile.txt') AS "Output" FROM dual;

If anybody has suggestions for improvements, please pass them along. As always, I hope this helps other developers.

Written by maclochlainn

April 16th, 2014 at 3:07 am

## Using UTL_FILE Package

Sometimes I’m surprised. Today, the surprise came when somebody pointed to a potential error in another author’s book. The person who asked the question had to send me a screen shot before I believed it.

The author’s code encounters the following error because the code was designed to loop through a multiple line file, and the code called the UTL_FILE.FOPEN procedure with three instead of four parameters. While it works with only three parameters when the strings are less than or equal to 1,024 (thanks Gary), it throws read errors when a string exceeds the default. You use the fourth parameter when your string exceeds the default length of 1,024.

DECLARE * ERROR at line 1: ORA-29284: file READ error ORA-06512: at "SYS.UTL_FILE", line 106 ORA-06512: at "SYS.UTL_FILE", line 746 ORA-06512: at line 26

As mentioned, you fix the problem by using the fourth parameter like the call on lines 15 through 18 below:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 DECLARE /* Declare local input variables. */ lv_location VARCHAR2(60) := 'C:\Data\Direct'; lv_file_name VARCHAR2(40) := 'TextFile.txt';   /* Declare a file reference pointer and buffer. */ lv_file UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; -- File reference lv_line VARCHAR2(32767); -- Reading buffer   BEGIN   /* Check for open file and close when open. */ IF utl_file.is_open(lv_file) THEN utl_file.fclose(lv_file); END IF;   /* Open the file for read-only of 32,767 lines of text. The fourth parameter is required when you want to use the GET_LINE procedure to read a file line-by-line. */ lv_file := utl_file.fopen( location => lv_location , filename => lv_file_name , open_mode => 'R' , max_linesize => 32767);   /* Read all lines of a text file. */ LOOP /* Read a line of text, when the eof marker is found the get_line procedure raises a NO_DATA_FOUND error, which is why there's no explicit loop. */ utl_file.get_line( file => lv_file , buffer => lv_line );   /* Print the line of text or a line return because UTL_FILE doesn't read line returns. */ dbms_output.put_line(NVL(lv_line,CHR(10)));   END LOOP;   EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN utl_file.fclose(lv_file); END; /

While the foregoing is traditional and uses a physical directory path from the local server’s operating system, you can use a virtual directory from Oracle Database 10g forward. This physical directory is also defined in the utl_file_dir parameter of the database server. A virtual directory hides the physical directory from the application software, which simplifies physical file maintenance when you need to move the files.

3 lv_location VARCHAR2(60) := 'DirectVirtualDirectory';

The preceding example works, and I’ll put one out converting the external to CLOB later in the week.

Written by maclochlainn

April 13th, 2014 at 11:46 pm

## DBMS_JAVA Privilege Error?

It’s possible to get an error after granting privileges to an external file system. One of those errors is tedious to resolve until you understand the rules governing Java NIO file permissions.

You grant privileges to external file systems as the sys user with the grant_permission procedure of the dbms_java package, like

SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_JAVA.GRANT_PERMISSION('IMPORTER' 3 ,'SYS:java.io.FilePermission' 4 ,'C:\Data\Upload' 5 ,'read'); 6 END; 7 /

After you grant privileges to read, write, and delete files with Oracle’s dbms_java package, you must disconnect any active session to enjoy the new privileges. If you forget to disconnect and re-connect an active session, you get the following error message:

FROM TABLE(list_files(get_directory_path('STAGE'))) * ERROR at line 2: ORA-29532: Java CALL TERMINATED BY uncaught Java exception: java.security.AccessControlException: Directory permissions restricted.

The problem and fix are simple. The permissions aren’t in effect until after you disconnect and reconnect your active sessions. I put this there because when I Google’d it, there wasn’t an answer already.

While I’m on the topic of privilege errors, that aren’t really errors, I thought it would be helpful to qualify how the delete permission works because I couldn’t find it anywhere in the Oracle documentation (if somebody finds it let make a comment that enriches the discussion). Unlike the read and write permissions, the delete permission requires permissions on specific files.

If you only grant permission on like:

SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_JAVA.GRANT_PERMISSION('IMPORTER' 3 ,'SYS:java.io.FilePermission' 4 ,'C:\Data\Upload' 5 ,'read,write,delete'); 6 END; 7 /

You would get this message when trying to delete an external file:

BEGIN * ERROR at line 1: ORA-29532: Java CALL TERMINATED BY uncaught Java exception: java.security.AccessControlException: the Permission (java.io.FilePermission c:\DATA\log\item_import.log READ) has NOT been GRANTED TO IMPORTER. The PL/SQL TO GRANT this IS dbms_java.grant_permission( 'IMPORTER', 'SYS:java.io.FilePermission', 'c:\data\log\item_import.log', 'read' ) ORA-06512: at "IMPORTER.DELETE_FILE", line 1 ORA-06512: at line 2

It requires that you grant permissions on individual files to have the privilege of deleting them from within Oracle. That grant would look like the following:

SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_JAVA.GRANT_PERMISSION('IMPORTER' 3 ,'SYS:java.io.FilePermission' 4 ,'C:\Data\Upload\item_import.log' 5 ,'read,write,delete'); 6 END; 7 /

As always, I hope this helps other developers.

Written by maclochlainn

March 29th, 2014 at 1:59 pm

## Hidden DBMS_JAVA Nuance

It always happens when I’m in a hurry. Yes, I ran into one of those pesky little features with Oracle’s DBMS_JAVA package. While I try to write entries with proper GeSHi case semantics, like everyone else I tend to write PL/SQL initially in lowercase. That led me to the discovery of this wonderful error message:

BEGIN * ERROR at line 1: ORA-29532: Java CALL TERMINATED BY uncaught Java exception: oracle.aurora.vm.IdNotFoundException: importer : USER OR ROLE id does NOT exist ORA-06512: at "SYS.DBMS_JAVA", line 705 ORA-06512: at line 2

The problem was simple, while not published, you must enter the user/schema name in uppercase text when calling DBMS_JAVA.GRANT_PERMISSION procedure. Here’s a proper example:

SQL> BEGIN 2 DBMS_JAVA.GRANT_PERMISSION('IMPORTER' 3 ,'SYS:java.io.FilePermission' 4 ,'C:\Data\Upload' 5 ,'read'); 6 END; 7 /

If you change the IMPORTER string to lower or mixed case, you raise the aforementioned error. Quite an interesting tidbit that I missed from Oracle Database 10g until Oracle Database 12c. Hope this helps you avoid wondering what’s happening when your line 2 looks like this:

 2 DBMS_JAVA.GRANT_PERMISSION('Importer'

As always, I hope this helps others. If you like more on writing Java inside the Oracle database you can check this older post.

Written by maclochlainn

March 21st, 2014 at 12:44 am

## Find Type Dependents

Somebody thought it was nice to show how to drop object type dependents in Oracle Database 11g, but they thought I should show how you discover dependent object types first. More or less, they were concerned how they discover type dependents when they raise the following error:

DROP TYPE item_object * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02303: cannot DROP OR REPLACE a TYPE WITH TYPE OR TABLE dependents

They had a great point, so here I’m providing and object table function (object table functions are covered in Chapter 8 of Oracle Database 12c PL/SQL Programming book) that displays an object dependency tree.

Unlike table functions in Microsoft SQL Server or PostgreSQL, Oracle requires that you create the object type before you can return a result set table from a parameter-driven function. Here’s the object type for this object table function:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -- Create an object type that mimics a record structure. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE type_tree IS object ( level_id NUMBER , type_name VARCHAR2(30) , object VARCHAR2(10) , parent_type VARCHAR2(30)); /   -- Create a UDT Collection. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE type_tree_table IS TABLE OF type_tree; /

Now, you can create the object table function that returns an object type dependent tree. This function uses branching recursion because you need to walk the dependency tree. The cursor against the three types of metadata in the database catalog lets us walk the tree. Each object type, and their dependents may have:

• A dependent object type
• A dependent collection, which uses the object type as a base object type.
• A dependent schema function, which uses the object type as a parameter data type or return data type.
• A dependent schema procedure, which uses the object type as a parameter data type.
• A dependent package, which contains a function or procedure using the object type as a parameter data type, or a function using the object type as a return data type.

Here’s the type_dependent function that walks the tree and displays the hierarchical results:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION type_dependents ( pv_base_object_type VARCHAR2 , pv_level_id NUMBER DEFAULT 1 , pv_collection TYPE_TREE_TABLE DEFAULT NULL ) RETURN TYPE_TREE_TABLE IS   /* Declare a return data type. */ lv_level_id NUMBER;   /* Declare item type. */ lv_type_name VARCHAR2(30); lv_object_type VARCHAR2(30); lv_parent_type VARCHAR2(30);   /* Declare a collection variable. */ lv_collection TYPE_TREE_TABLE := type_tree_table(); lv_incoming TYPE_TREE_TABLE := type_tree_table();   /* The first part of the cursor finds the dependent type names of complex object types, and the second part of the cursor finds the dependent collection types. Effectively the set operator finds two distinct branches because you may use any base type as an element of a complex object or of a collection. */ CURSOR base_type ( cv_level_id NUMBER , cv_base_type VARCHAR2 ) IS SELECT (cv_level_id) AS level_id , LPAD(' ', 2*(cv_level_id - 1)) || ut.type_name AS type_name , ut.typecode AS object_type , NULL AS parent_type FROM user_types ut WHERE ut.type_name = cv_base_type;   CURSOR dependent_type ( cv_level_id NUMBER , cv_base_type VARCHAR2 ) IS SELECT cv_level_id AS level_id , LPAD(' ', 2*(cv_level_id - 1)) || uta.type_name AS type_name , ut.typecode AS object_type , ut.type_name AS parent_type FROM user_type_attrs uta INNER JOIN user_types ut ON uta.attr_type_name = ut.type_name WHERE ut.type_name = cv_base_type UNION ALL SELECT cv_level_id AS level_id , LPAD(' ', 2*(cv_level_id - 1)) || uct.type_name AS type_name , CASE WHEN uct.coll_type = 'TABLE' THEN uct.coll_type ELSE 'VARRAY' END AS object_type , ut.type_name AS parent_type FROM user_types ut INNER JOIN user_coll_types uct ON ut.type_name = uct.elem_type_name WHERE uct.elem_type_name = cv_base_type UNION ALL SELECT cv_level_id AS level_id , CASE WHEN package_name IS NULL THEN LPAD(' ', 2*(cv_level_id - 1)) || ua.object_name ELSE LPAD(' ', 2*(cv_level_id - 1)) || ua.package_name END AS type_name , CASE WHEN package_name IS NULL THEN uo.object_type ELSE 'PACKAGE' END AS object_type , ua.type_name AS parent_type FROM user_arguments ua LEFT JOIN user_objects uo ON ua.package_name = uo.object_name OR ua.object_name = uo.object_name WHERE type_name = cv_base_type ORDER BY object_type;   BEGIN   /* Set the call level indicator. */ lv_level_id := pv_level_id;   /* Check if the collection holds values, which should occur in recursive calls. */ IF pv_collection IS NOT NULL THEN lv_collection := pv_collection; ELSE /* Open the base type and record level 1. */ OPEN base_type (lv_level_id, pv_base_object_type); FETCH base_type INTO lv_level_id , lv_type_name , lv_object_type , lv_parent_type; CLOSE base_type;   /* Extend the collection. */ lv_collection.EXTEND; lv_collection(lv_collection.COUNT) := type_tree( lv_level_id , lv_type_name , lv_object_type , lv_parent_type );   /* Increment the type dependency level. */ lv_level_id := lv_level_id + 1;   END IF;   /* Loop through and return records. */ FOR i IN dependent_type(lv_level_id, pv_base_object_type) LOOP   /* Extend the collection. */ lv_collection.EXTEND; lv_collection(lv_collection.COUNT) := type_tree( i.level_id , i.type_name , i.object_type , i.parent_type );   /* Recursively call down to dependent types. */ IF i.type_name <> i.parent_type THEN lv_collection := type_dependents(TRIM(i.type_name), (lv_level_id + 1), lv_collection); END IF;   END LOOP;   /* Return 0 for false. */ RETURN lv_collection; END; /

You would query the function with the TABLE function, like this:

COLUMN level_id FORMAT 99999 HEADING "Level|ID #" COLUMN type_name FORMAT A30 HEADING "Type Name" COLUMN object FORMAT A10 HEADING "Object Type" COLUMN parent_type FORMAT A30 HEADING "Parent Type"   SELECT * FROM TABLE(type_dependents('ITEM_OBJECT',1));

It displays the following results based on the sample types created by the original blog post:

 Level ID # Type Name Object Typ Parent Type ------ ------------------------------ ---------- ------------------------ 1 ITEM_OBJECT OBJECT 2 GET_ITEM_OBJECT FUNCTION ITEM_OBJECT 2 IDENTIFIED_OBJECT OBJECT ITEM_OBJECT 2 ITEM_PACKAGE PACKAGE ITEM_OBJECT 2 ITEM_TABLE TABLE ITEM_OBJECT 3 ITEM_ASYNC_TABLE COLLECTION ITEM_TABLE 4 ITEM_LIST TABLE ITEM_ASYNC_TABLE 2 ITEM_VARRAY VARRAY ITEM_OBJECT 3 ITEM_ASYNC_VARRAY COLLECTION ITEM_VARRAY 4 ITEM_ARRAY VARRAY ITEM_ASYNC_VARRAY   10 rows selected.

I hope this helps those working with Oracle Database 10g (de-supported), 11g, or 12c. As a note, you don’t need to drop type dependents in Oracle 12c because it supports type evolution. I cover type evolution in Appendix B of Oracle Database 12c PL/SQL Programming. As always, I hope this helps those trying to determine type dependents in an Oracle database.

Written by maclochlainn

March 8th, 2014 at 10:33 am

## Drop Types Recursively

with one comment

As covered in my new Oracle Database 12c PL/SQL Programming book (publisher’s satisfied), you can evolve object types. That means you can change a base object type and the change cascades through dependents. Somebody asked how to remove an object type chain without appending the FORCE clause.

It’s quite easy if you understand writing a recursive function in PL/SQL, as done here:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 -- Create a recursive function. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION drop_dependents (pv_base_object_type VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER IS   /* Declare a return data type. */ lv_retval NUMBER := 0;   /* Declare item type. */ lv_type_name VARCHAR2(30); lv_object_name VARCHAR2(30);   /* The first part of the cursor finds the dependent type names of complex object types, and the second part of the cursor finds the dependent collection types. Effectively the set operator finds two distinct branches because you may use any base type as an element of a complex object or of a collection. */ CURSOR base_type (cv_base_type VARCHAR2) IS SELECT uta.type_name , NULL AS object_name FROM user_type_attrs uta INNER JOIN user_types ut ON uta.attr_type_name = ut.type_name WHERE ut.type_name = cv_base_type UNION ALL SELECT uct.type_name , NULL AS object_name FROM user_types ut INNER JOIN user_coll_types uct ON ut.type_name = uct.elem_type_name WHERE uct.elem_type_name = cv_base_type UNION ALL SELECT CASE WHEN package_name IS NULL THEN uo.object_type ELSE 'PACKAGE' END AS type_name , CASE WHEN package_name IS NULL THEN ua.object_name ELSE ua.package_name END AS object_name FROM user_arguments ua LEFT JOIN user_objects uo ON ua.package_name = uo.object_name OR ua.object_name = uo.object_name WHERE type_name = cv_base_type;   BEGIN   /* Open a parameterized cursor. */ OPEN base_type(pv_base_object_type);   /* Loop through return records. */ LOOP /* Fetch records. */ FETCH base_type INTO lv_type_name , lv_object_name;   /* Drop type without dependents, or drop leaf node dependent. */ IF base_type%NOTFOUND THEN   /* Drop functions when they include an object type or object type dependent as a formal parameter type or return type. Drop procedures when they include an object type or object type dependent. Drop procedures when any function or procedure uses an object type or object type dependent. */ IF lv_type_name IN ('FUNCTION','PACKAGE','PROCEDURE') THEN   /* Drop the base type when no dependents are found. */ EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DROP '||lv_type_name||' '||lv_object_name;   ELSE   /* Drop the base type when no dependents are found. */ EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DROP TYPE '||pv_base_object_type;   END IF;   /* Set exit state to one or true. */ lv_retval := 1;   /* Exit the loop. */ EXIT;   ELSE   /* A type must exclude function, package, and procedure; and the object name must be null before you recurse to another level. */ IF lv_type_name NOT IN ('FUNCTION','PACKAGE','PROCEDURE') AND lv_object_name IS NOT NULL THEN   /* Drop base type when no dependents are found. */ lv_retval := drop_dependents(lv_type_name);   END IF;   END IF; END LOOP;   /* Close open cursor. */ CLOSE base_type;   /* Return 0 for false. */ RETURN lv_retval; END; /

Somebody asked me to provide a test case of a hierarchy of object types to support the drop_dependents function. So, here’s the test case code:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 -- Create object type. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE item_object IS OBJECT ( item_name VARCHAR2(30) , item_subname VARCHAR2(30)); /   -- Create object type. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE identified_object IS OBJECT ( identified_id NUMBER , identified_object item_object); /   -- Create object collection. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE item_table IS TABLE OF item_object; /   -- Create object collection. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE item_varray IS VARRAY(5) OF item_object; /   -- Create object type. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE item_async_table IS OBJECT ( item_name VARCHAR2(30) , item_collection item_table); /   -- Create object type. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE item_async_varray IS OBJECT ( item_name VARCHAR2(30) , item_collection item_varray); /   -- Create object collection. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE item_list IS TABLE OF item_async_table; /   -- Create object collection. CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE item_array IS VARRAY(10) OF item_async_varray; /   -- Create package specification. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE item_package AS   /* A published function of the package. */ FUNCTION initialize_object ( id NUMBER , name NUMBER ) RETURN ITEM_OBJECT;   END item_package; /   -- Create a schema function. CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_item_object ( pv_id NUMBER , pv_name NUMBER ) RETURN ITEM_OBJECT IS   /* Declare a local variable. */ lv_item_object ITEM_OBJECT;   BEGIN   /* Initialize the object type. */ lv_item_object := item_object(pv_id, pv_name);   /* Return the dat type. */ RETURN lv_item_object; END; /

If you call the function with the base type, it’ll drop the most dependent object type first, and the base object type last. The rest are dropped in their order of dependency. You can call a drop_dependents function with a base type, like ITEM_OBJECT, by using the following syntax:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE UNLIMITED BEGIN IF drop_dependents('ITEM_OBJECT') = 1 THEN dbms_output.put_line('Objects dropped.'); END IF; END; /

Hope this helps those looking to drop a chain of object types in an Oracle database.

Written by maclochlainn

February 18th, 2014 at 3:39 am