MacLochlainns Weblog

Michael McLaughlin's Technical Blog

Site Admin

Archive for the ‘PSM’ Category

MySQL OCP Exams

with 6 comments

Planning out my year, I decided to take the Oracle OCP and MySQL OCP exams. I checked for review books and was pleasantly surprised to find the soon to be released OCP MySQL Database Administrator Exam Guide (Exam 1Z0-883). However, I noticed that the book was actually prepared for the obsolete and discountinued Exams 1Z0-870, 1Z0-873, and 1Z0-874. As it turns out, Steve O’Hearn has informed me that there isn’t a book and that the posting in Amazon.com is in error.

There isn’t an alternative review book for the OCP MySQL 5.6 Developer or Database Administrator Exams. The question that I have is simple: “How relevant is this book because it was prepared for the older exams?” There isn’t a table of content published on the Amazon.com site. If there was a table of contents it could help me determine how close the book’s content is to the new exam.

As a preparation to figure out the value of the book as a study guide, I’ve reviewed the current Oracle MySQL Training Objectives (listed below). The new MySQL OCP Developer and Administrator exams have the following descriptions and objectives:

  • MySQL 5.6 Developer 1Z0-882. Oracle provides the following outline for their MySQL for Developer (Ed 3) training course:

    Course Objectives

    • Describe the MySQL client/server architecture
    • Use MySQL client programs and common options
    • Program MySQL applications with Java and PHP connectors
    • Use a “NoSQL” approach to store and retrieve data
    • Design efficient tables
    • Create and delete database objects
    • Use expressions in SQL statements
    • Examine database metadata
    • Use SQL statements to modify table data
    • Maintain database integrity with transactions
    • Write multiple table queries
    • Create “virtual tables” containing specific data
    • Create user-defined variables, prepared statements, and stored routines
    • Create and manage triggers
    • Identify and deal with errors and exceptions in client programs
    • Write queries that are fast and effective, even under heavy loads
  • MySQL 5.6 Database Administrator 1Z0-883. Oracle provides the following outline for their MySQL for Database Administrators (Ed 3.1) training course:

    Course Objectives

    • Describe the MySQL Architecture
    • Install and Upgrade MySQL
    • Use the INFORMATION_SCHEMA database to access metadata
    • Perform the MySQL start and shutdown operations
    • Configure MySQL server options at runtime
    • Use available tools including MySQL Workbench
    • Evaluate data types and character sets for performance issues
    • Understand data locking in MySQL
    • Understand the use of the InnoDB storage engine with MySQL
    • Maintain integrity of a MySQL installation
    • Use triggers for administration tasks
    • Use Enterprise Audit and Pluggable Authentication
    • Configure advanced replication topologies for high availability
    • Describe introductory performance tuning techniques
    • Perform backup and restore operations
    • Automate administrative tasks with scheduled events

    As always, I hope this helps those who read it; and, in this case I hope it helps you make an effective decision on preparation resources for the MySQL 5.6 OCP exams.

Written by maclochlainn

April 24th, 2015 at 12:39 am

Signal from a procedure

without comments

As I review with my students, a stored function works like a standalone program, while a stored procedure runs in the scope of another program unit. For example, you can compare the result of a function as an expression in an IF statement, like:

  IF add_numbers(1,3) > 3 THEN
    ...
  ELSE
    ...
  END IF;

You can’t call procedures inside an IF statement, but you can call the procedure and use a single OUT-mode (pass-by-reference) parameter from the procedure in a subsequent IF statement. You can implement a a wait procedure like that with the following example.

The example first creates two tables, the road_runner and coyote tables:

-- Drop road_runner table if exists.
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS road_runner;
 
-- Create roadrunner table.
CREATE TABLE road_runner
( road_runner_id    int unsigned  auto_increment primary key
, road_runner_text  varchar(20)
, CONSTRAINT road_runner_nk UNIQUE (road_runner_text));
 
-- Drop coyote table if exists.
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS coyote;
 
-- Create coyote table.
CREATE TABLE coyote
( coyote_id       int unsigned  auto_increment primary key
, coyote_text     varchar(20)
, road_runner_id  int unsigned
, CONSTRAINT coyote_nk UNIQUE (coyote_text));

The following creates a procedure that:

  • Writes data to two tables when the values are unique, returning a value of zero when it works.
  • Writes data to neither table when the values to either table are non-unique, returning a value of one when it fails.

The procedure uses a 0 as a false value and a 1 as a true value. The use of a 0 and 1 for truth is a consistent approach for languages where they don’t support a Boolean data type.

-- Change the delimiter to a "$$"
DELIMITER $$
 
-- Drop the paired procedure.
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS two_table$$
 
-- Create the paired procedure.
CREATE PROCEDURE two_table
(IN    pv_road_runner_text  varchar(20)
,IN    pv_coyote_text       varchar(20)
,  OUT pv_confirm_it        int)
BEGIN
  /* Declare a variable to hold a sequence value for an 
     auto incrementing value. */
  DECLARE lv_road_runner_id  int unsigned;
 
  /* Declare a condition variable for attempting to write
     a non-unique record to a table. */
  DECLARE duplicate CONDITION FOR 1062;
 
  /* Declare an event handler for a duplicate condition 
     variable, rollback transaction, and set 1 as a false
     condition. */
  DECLARE EXIT HANDLER FOR duplicate
    BEGIN
      ROLLBACK to all_or_none;
      SET pv_confirm_it = 1;
    END;
 
  /* Start the transaction. */
  START TRANSACTION;
 
  /* Set the save point for a multiple table transaction. */
  SAVEPOINT all_or_none;
 
  /* Insert into road runner table. */
  INSERT INTO road_runner
  (road_runner_text)
  VALUES  
  (pv_road_runner_text);
 
  /* Capture the auto incrementing sequence value as a 
     local variable. */
  SET lv_road_runner_id := last_insert_id();
 
  /* Insert into the coyote table. */
  INSERT INTO coyote
  (coyote_text
  ,road_runner_id)
  VALUES  
  (pv_coyote_text
  ,lv_road_runner_id);
 
  /* Commit the record. */
  COMMIT;
 
  /* Set the control variable to a true value. */
  SET pv_confirm_it := 0;
 
END;
$$
 
DELIMITER ;

You can test the pass-by-reference procedure with the following code:

-- Set a control variable with a null value.
SET @sv_control := null;
 
-- Query the results from a join between the road_runner and coyote tables.
SELECT   *
FROM     road_runner r INNER JOIN coyote c
ON       r.road_runner_id = c.road_runner_id;
 
-- Call the two_table procedure with unique results.
CALL two_table('Road Runner 1','Coyote 1',@sv_control);
 
-- Query the control variable result from the second call to the
-- two_table procedure.
SELECT @sv_control AS "1st Insert";
 
-- Reset the value for a second test.
SET @sv_control := 0;
 
-- Call teh two_table procedure with unique results.  
CALL two_table('Road Runner 2','Coyote 1',@sv_control);  
 
-- Query the results from a join between the road_runner and coyote tables.  
SELECT   *
FROM     road_runner r INNER JOIN coyote c
ON       r.road_runner_id = c.road_runner_id;
 
-- Query the control variable result from the second call to the
-- two_table procedure.
SELECT   @sv_control AS "2nd Insert";

I hope this helps anybody trying to implement a pass-by-reference procedure with a control variable. You can find other examples in Chapter 14 of Oracle Database 11g and MySQL 5.6 Developer Handbook (pp. 446-449 and 450-451).

Written by maclochlainn

February 16th, 2014 at 5:22 pm

Cleanup a MySQL Schema

with 7 comments

My students required way to remove all their tables, views, and constraints from a MySQL database (or the alias schema). Since they’re using referential or foreign key constraints, I also wrote one procedure to drop all foreign key constraints from a database. There’s also another to drop views. The final stored procedure calls the procedure that drops foreign keys, then calls the procedure to drop views before dropping all the tables.

Here’s the dropForeignKeys stored procedure, but if you want to capture ALTER statements that add these back later please check my follow-up Capture MySQL Foreign Keys post.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
-- Provide a log file debugging statement.
SELECT 'DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS dropForeignKeys';
 
-- Conditionally drop the procedure.
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS dropForeignKeys;
 
-- Provide a log file debugging statement.
SELECT 'CREATE PROCEDURE dropForeignKeys';
 
-- Change delimiter to create procedure.
DELIMITER $$
 
-- Create procedure.
CREATE PROCEDURE dropForeignKeys
( pv_database          VARCHAR(64)
, pv_referenced_table  VARCHAR(64))
BEGIN
 
  /* Declare local statement variables. */
  DECLARE lv_stmt VARCHAR(1024);
 
  /* Declare local cursor variables. */
  DECLARE lv_table_name       VARCHAR(64);
  DECLARE lv_constraint_name  VARCHAR(64);
 
  /* Declare control variable for handler. */
  DECLARE fetched       INT DEFAULT 0;
 
  /* Declare local cursor. */
  DECLARE foreign_key_cursor CURSOR FOR
    SELECT   rc.table_name
    ,        rc.constraint_name
    FROM     information_schema.referential_constraints rc
    WHERE    constraint_schema = IFNULL(pv_database,database())
    AND      referenced_table_name = pv_referenced_table
    ORDER BY rc.table_name
    ,        rc.constraint_name;
 
  /* Declare a not found record handler to close a cursor loop. */
  DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET fetched = 1;
 
  /* Open a local cursor. */  
  OPEN foreign_key_cursor;
  cursor_foreign_key: LOOP
 
    FETCH foreign_key_cursor
    INTO  lv_table_name
    ,     lv_constraint_name;
 
    /* Place the catch handler for no more rows found
       immediately after the fetch operation.          */
    IF fetched = 1 THEN LEAVE cursor_foreign_key; END IF;
 
    /* Set a SQL statement by using concatenation. */
    SET @SQL := CONCAT('ALTER TABLE',' ',lv_table_name,' ','DROP FOREIGN KEY',' ',lv_constraint_name);
 
    /* Prepare, run, and deallocate statement. */
    PREPARE lv_stmt FROM @SQL;
    EXECUTE lv_stmt;
    DEALLOCATE PREPARE lv_stmt;
 
  END LOOP cursor_foreign_key;
  CLOSE foreign_key_cursor;  
 
END;
$$
 
-- Reset delimiter to run SQL statements.
DELIMITER ;

Here’s the dropViews stored procedure:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
-- Provide a log file debugging statement.
SELECT 'DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS dropViews';
 
-- Conditionally drop the procedure.
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS dropViews;
 
-- Provide a log file debugging statement.
SELECT 'CREATE PROCEDURE dropViews';
 
-- Change delimiter to create procedure.
DELIMITER $$
 
-- Create procedure.
CREATE PROCEDURE dropViews
( pv_database  VARCHAR(64))
BEGIN
 
  /* Declare local statement variables. */
  DECLARE lv_stmt VARCHAR(1024);
 
  /* Declare local cursor variables. */
  DECLARE lv_view_name       VARCHAR(64);
 
  /* Declare control variable for handler. */
  DECLARE fetched       INT DEFAULT 0;
 
  /* Declare local cursor. */
  DECLARE view_cursor CURSOR FOR
    SELECT   v.table_name
    FROM     information_schema.views v
    WHERE    table_schema = IFNULL(pv_database, database())
    ORDER BY v.table_name;
 
  /* Declare a not found record handler to close a cursor loop. */
  DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET fetched = 1;
 
  /* Open a local cursor. */  
  OPEN view_cursor;
  cursor_view: LOOP
 
    FETCH view_cursor
    INTO  lv_view_name;
 
    /* Place the catch handler for no more rows found
       immediately after the fetch operation.          */
    IF fetched = 1 THEN LEAVE cursor_view; END IF;
 
    /* Set a SQL statement by using concatenation. */
    SET @SQL := CONCAT('DROP VIEW',' ',lv_view_name);
 
    /* Prepare, run, and deallocate statement. */
    PREPARE lv_stmt FROM @SQL;
    EXECUTE lv_stmt;
    DEALLOCATE PREPARE lv_stmt;
 
  END LOOP cursor_view;
  CLOSE view_cursor;  
 
END;
$$
 
-- Reset delimiter to run SQL statements.
DELIMITER ;

Here’s the dropTables stored procedure:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
CREATE PROCEDURE dropTables
( pv_database  VARCHAR(64))
BEGIN
 
  /* Declare local statement variables. */
  DECLARE lv_stmt  VARCHAR(1024);
 
  /* Declare local cursor variables. */
  DECLARE lv_table_name  VARCHAR(64);
 
  /* Declare control variable for handler. */
  DECLARE fetched       INT DEFAULT 0;
 
  /* Declare local cursor. */
  DECLARE table_cursor CURSOR FOR
    SELECT   t.table_name
    FROM     information_schema.tables t
    WHERE    table_schema = IFNULL(pv_database, database())
    ORDER BY t.table_name;
 
  /* Declare a not found record handler to close a cursor loop. */
  DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET fetched = 1;
 
  /* Drop the views. */
  CALL dropViews(null);
 
  /* Open a local cursor. */  
  OPEN table_cursor;
  cursor_table: LOOP
 
    FETCH table_cursor
    INTO  lv_table_name;
 
    /* Place the catch handler for no more rows found
       immediately after the fetch operation.          */
    IF fetched = 1 THEN LEAVE cursor_table; END IF;
 
    /* Drop the tables. */
    CALL dropForeignKeys(null,lv_table_name);
 
    /* Set a SQL statement by using concatenation. */
    SET @SQL := CONCAT('DROP TABLE',' ',lv_table_name);
 
    /* Prepare, run, and deallocate statement. */
    PREPARE lv_stmt FROM @SQL;
    EXECUTE lv_stmt;
    DEALLOCATE PREPARE lv_stmt;
 
  END LOOP cursor_table;
  CLOSE table_cursor;  
 
END;
$$
 
-- Reset delimiter to run SQL statements.
DELIMITER ;

You put these in a rerunnable script, run it, and then call the dropTables stored procedure. You can pass a database (or schema) name or a null value. When you pass a null value, it uses the current database, like:

CALL dropTables(null);

As always, I hope this helps others.

Written by maclochlainn

February 7th, 2014 at 1:38 am

Placement over substance

with 5 comments

I was stunned when a SQL query raised an ERROR 1630 (42000) telling me the SUM function didn’t exist in MySQL 5.5.23. The fix was simple. The opening parenthesis of the SUM function must be on the same line as the SUM keyword without an intervening white space. Alternatively phrased, you can’t have a line return or white space between the SUM function name and the opening parenthesis of the call parameter list. The same rule doesn’t apply to the opening parenthesis of the FORMAT function and it seems to me that this parsing inconsistency is problematic.

Therefore, my surprise, observation, and complaint is that all functions don’t parse the same way, using the same rules. That is, unless you use specialized SQL_MODE settings. This assumption was borne out by Kolbe Kegel’s comment on this post, and there are 30 remaining built in functions that have specialized parsing and resolution markers.

A simplified version of the code that raises the error follows. As you’ll notice the opening parenthesis for the FORMAT and SUM function have intervening white space and a line return.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
SELECT   t.transaction_account AS "Transaction"
,        LPAD(FORMAT
           (SUM
             (CASE
                WHEN EXTRACT(MONTH FROM transaction_date) = 1 AND
                     EXTRACT(YEAR FROM transaction_date) = 2011 THEN
                  CASE
                    WHEN t.transaction_type = cl.common_lookup_type THEN
                      t.transaction_amount
                    ELSE
                      t.transaction_amount * -1
                  END
             END),2),10,' ') AS "JAN"
FROM     TRANSACTION t CROSS JOIN common_lookup cl
WHERE    cl.common_lookup_table = 'TRANSACTION'
AND      cl.common_lookup_column = 'TRANSACTION_TYPE'
AND      cl.common_lookup_type = 'DEBIT'
GROUP BY t.transaction_account;

Based on the comments, the SQL_MODE is:

mysql> SELECT @@version, @@sql_mode;
+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| @@version | @@sql_mode                                                     |
+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| 5.5.23    | STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION |
+-----------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
1 ROW IN SET (0.00 sec)

It raises the following error:

ERROR 1630 (42000): FUNCTION studentdb.SUM does NOT exist. CHECK the 'Function Name Parsing and Resolution' SECTION IN the Reference Manual

Moving ONLY the opening parenthesis to the end of the SUM keyword (or removing the line return and white space from between the SUM keyword and opening parenthesis) prevents the error but it would be more convenient if it supported both approaches. It seems odd that an intervening line return and white space for the SUM function raises an exception while the same intervening line return and white space doesn’t raise an exception for the FORMAT function. It strikes me the parser should support both or reject both. Here’s the fixed code that works without enabling the IGNORE_SPACE SQL Mode option.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
SELECT   t.transaction_account AS "Transaction"
,        LPAD(FORMAT
           (SUM(
              CASE
                WHEN EXTRACT(MONTH FROM transaction_date) = 1 AND
                     EXTRACT(YEAR FROM transaction_date) = 2011 THEN
                  CASE
                    WHEN t.transaction_type = cl.common_lookup_type THEN
                      t.transaction_amount
                    ELSE
                      t.transaction_amount * -1
                  END
             END),2),10,' ') AS "JAN"
FROM     TRANSACTION t CROSS JOIN common_lookup cl
WHERE    cl.common_lookup_table = 'TRANSACTION'
AND      cl.common_lookup_column = 'TRANSACTION_TYPE'
AND      cl.common_lookup_type = 'DEBIT'
GROUP BY t.transaction_account;

As noted by the comments, adding the IGNORE_SPACE to the SQL_MODE lets both queries work without moving the open parenthesis. You can do that in a session with the following syntax (which is covered in an older post):

SET SQL_MODE=(SELECT CONCAT(@@sql_mode,',IGNORE_SPACE'));

Hope this helps folks…

Written by maclochlainn

July 3rd, 2012 at 4:10 pm

Implicit Commit Functions?

without comments

Somebody asked about the possibility of putting DML statements inside MySQL stored functions. DML statements like the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. When I said, “Yes, you can put DML statements inside functions.” They showed me the error they encountered, which is only raised at compilation when you put an explicit COMMIT statement or a Data Definition Language (DDL) statement (CREATE, ALTER, DROP, or RENAME) inside a MySQL function. The actual error message displayed is:

ERROR 1422 (HY000): Explicit OR implicit commit IS NOT allowed IN stored FUNCTION OR TRIGGER.

While an explicit COMMIT is obvious when placed inside a function, the implicit COMMIT statement isn’t obvious unless you know a DDL statement generates one. This means you can’t include any DDL statement inside a stored function.

The following example shows how a DDL statement creates an immediate implicit COMMIT. It requires two sessions and Transaction Control Language (TCL) statements.

In session one, create a table, start a transaction scope, and insert one row into the table:

-- Create a table.
CREATE TABLE message
( message_id    INT UNSIGNED PRIMARY KEY AUTO_INCREMENT
, message_text  VARCHAR(20));
 
-- Start a transaction context.
BEGIN WORK;
 
-- Insert a row into the MESSAGE table.
INSERT INTO message (message_text) VALUES ('Implicit Commit?');

In session two, the empty set is displayed when you query the MESSAGE table. Returning to session one, add a new column to the MESSAGE table with this statement:

ALTER TABLE message ADD (sent DATETIME);

The ALTER statement automatically makes current any pending data changes, effectively committing the record from session one. You can return to the second session and query the table you get the following results:

+------------+------------------+------+
| message_id | message_text     | sent |
+------------+------------------+------+
|          1 | Implicit Commit? | NULL |
+------------+------------------+------+

When you embed DML statements inside functions, they rely on automatic commit behaviors or an external transaction scope. This function compiles and returns 1 when successful and 0 when unsuccessful, which effectively controls all error conditions within the function:

CREATE FUNCTION modifies_data ( pv_message  CHAR(20) ) RETURNS INT
MODIFIES SQL DATA
BEGIN
  /* Declare Boolean-like variables as FALSE. */
  DECLARE lv_return_value INT DEFAULT FALSE;
  DECLARE lv_error_value INT DEFAULT FALSE;
 
  /* Declare a generic exit handler to reset error control variable to true. */
  DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR SQLEXCEPTION SET lv_error_value := TRUE;   
 
  /* Insert statement with auto commit enabled. */
  INSERT INTO message (message_text) VALUES (pv_message);
 
  /* True unless the CONTINUE HANDLER disables the error control variable. */ 
  IF lv_error_value = FALSE THEN
    SET lv_return_value := TRUE;
  END IF;
 
  /* Return local variable. */
  RETURN lv_return_value;
END;
$$

With auto commit enabled, any call to the function in a query writes a row to the table. If you start a transaction and in the scope of the transaction test the function in one session and query the table in another you’ll see that transaction control can be managed outside the function. You can also manage the transaction control inside a stored procedure, which holds all the TCL commands. An example follows:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
CREATE PROCEDURE test_modifies_data ( pv_message  CHAR(20) )
MODIFIES SQL DATA
BEGIN
  /* Declare a control variable that manages transaction
     success or failure. */
  DECLARE lv_success_value  INT DEFAULT FALSE;
 
  /* Start a transaction context. */
  START TRANSACTION;
 
  /* Set a SAVEPOINT in the transaction context. */
  SAVEPOINT before_transaction;
 
  /* Call the function. */
  SET lv_success_value := modifies_data(pv_message);
 
  /* Check the status of the control variable, and commit
     or rollback the transaction. */
  IF lv_success_value = TRUE THEN
    COMMIT;
  ELSE
    ROLLBACK TO before_transaction;
  END IF;
 
END;
$$

Test the two with the following call to the procedure:

CALL test_modifies_data('Agent Coulson');

Answers my question and I hope it helps others.

Written by maclochlainn

June 5th, 2012 at 1:24 am

MySQL Striped Views

with 7 comments

A question came up today about how to stripe a MySQL view, and this post shows you how. Along with the question, there was a complaint about why you can’t use session variables in a view definition. It’s important to note two things: there’s a workaround and there’s an outstanding request to add lift the feature limitation in Bug 18433.

A striped view lets authorized users see only part of a table, and is how Oracle Database 11g sets up Virtual Private Databases. Oracle provides both schema (or database) level access and fine-grained control access. Fine grained control involves setting a special session variable during a user’s login. This is typically done by checking the rights in an Access Control List (ACL) and using an Oracle built-in package.

You can do more or less the same thing in MySQL by using stored functions. One function would set the session variable and the other would fetch the value for comparison in a view.

Most developers who try this initially meet failure because they try to embed the session variable inside the view, like this trivial example with Hobbits (can’t resist the example with the first installment from Peter Jackson out later this year):

1
2
CREATE VIEW hobbit_v AS
SELECT * FROM hobbit WHERE hobbit_name = @sv_login_name;

The syntax is disallowed, as explained in the MySQL Reference 13.1.20 CREATE VIEW Syntax documentation. The attempt raises the following error message:

ERROR 1351 (HY000): VIEW's SELECT contains a variable or parameter

The fix is quite simple, you write a function that sets the ACL value for the session and another that queries the ACL session value. For the example, I’ve written the SET_LOGIN_NAME and a GET_LOGIN_NAME functions. (If you’re new to stored programs, you can find a 58 page chapter on writing them in my Oracle Database 11g & MySQL 5.6 Developer Handbook or you can use Guy Harrison’s MySQL Stored Procedure Programming.)

You would call the SET_LOGIN_NAME when you connect to the MySQL database as the first thing to implement this type of architecture. You would define the function like the following. (Please note that the example includes all setup statements from the command line and should enable you cutting and pasting it. ;-)):

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
-- Change the delimiter to something other than a semicolon.
DELIMITER $$
 
-- Conditionally drop the function.
DROP FUNCTION IF EXISTS set_login_name$$
 
-- Create the function.
CREATE FUNCTION set_login_name(pv_login_name VARCHAR(20)) RETURNS INT UNSIGNED
BEGIN
 
  /* Declare a local variable to verify completion of the task. */
  DECLARE  lv_success_flag  INT UNSIGNED  DEFAULT FALSE;
 
  /* Check whether the input value is something other than a null value. */
  IF pv_login_name IS NOT NULL THEN
 
    /* Set the session variable and enable the success flag. */
    SET @sv_login_name := pv_login_name;
    SET lv_success_flag := TRUE;
 
  END IF;
 
  /* Return the success flag. */
  RETURN lv_success_flag;
END;
$$
 
-- Change the delimiter back to a semicolon.
DELIMITER ;

You can use a query to set and confirm action like this:

SELECT IF(set_login_name('Frodo')=TRUE,'Login Name Set','Login Name Not Set') AS "Login Name Status";

Or, you can use the actual number 1 in lieu of the TRUE, like this:

SELECT IF(set_login_name('Frodo')=1,'Login Name Set','Login Name Not Set') AS "Login Name Status";

Please check this older post on how MySQL manages logical constants and the realities of TRUE and FALSE constants. A more practical example in an API would be this, which returns zero when unset and one when set:

SELECT set_login_name('Frodo') AS "Login Name Status";

The getter function for this example, simply reads the current value of the MySQL session variable. Like the prior example, it’s ready to run too.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
-- Change the delimiter to something other than a semicolon.
DELIMITER $$
 
-- Conditionally drop the function.
DROP FUNCTION IF EXISTS get_login_name$$
 
-- Create the function.
CREATE FUNCTION get_login_name() RETURNS VARCHAR(20)
BEGIN
  /* Return the success flag. */
  RETURN @sv_login_name;
END;
$$
 
-- Change the delimiter back to a semicolon.
DELIMITER ;

Before you test it, lets create a HOBBIT table, seed it with data, and create a HOBBIT_V view. They’re bundled together in the following microscript:

-- Conditionally drop the table.
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS hobbit;
 
-- Create the table.
CREATE TABLE hobbit
( hobbit_id    INT UNSIGNED
, hobbit_name  VARCHAR(20));
 
-- Seed two rows.
INSERT INTO hobbit VALUES ( 1,'Bilbo'),( 1,'Frodo');
 
-- Conditionally drop the view.
DROP VIEW IF EXISTS hobbit_v;
 
-- Create the function-enabled view.
CREATE VIEW hobbit_v AS
SELECT * FROM hobbit WHERE hobbit_name = get_login_name();

A query to the table after setting the session variable will only return one row, the row with Frodo in the HOBBIT_NAME column. It also guarantees an unfiltered UPDATE statement against the view only updates the single row returned, like this:

UPDATE hobbit_v SET hobbit_id = 2;

In a real solution, there are more steps. For example, you’d want your tables in one database, views in another, and functions and procedures in a library database. However, I hope this helps seed some ideas for those interested in creating fine-grained virtual private databases in MySQL with user-authenticated application controls.

Written by maclochlainn

May 23rd, 2012 at 11:41 pm

MySQL Timestamp Columns

with 4 comments

Somebody asked how to work around an error message they got after converting one of their who-audit columns to a TIMESTAMP column. A TIMESTAMP column has a DEFAULT or ON UPDATE current timestamp. They wanted to have two TIMESTAMP columns in the same table, with the intention of:

  1. Having the created column assign a current timestamp value on insert
  2. Having the updated column assign a current timestamp value on insert and update

This is a sample table with two of the traditional four who-audit columns:

CREATE TABLE sample
( sample_id  INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY
, created    TIMESTAMP NOT NULL 
, updated    TIMESTAMP NOT NULL
                       DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
                       ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);

When they tried to create the table they got the following error:

ERROR 1293 (HY000): Incorrect TABLE definition; there can be ONLY one TIMESTAMP COLUMN WITH CURRENT_TIMESTAMP IN DEFAULT OR ON UPDATE clause

While you can define a table with two columns that have a TIMESTAMP data type, you can’t define a table with two TIMESTAMP columns when one holds a DEFAULT or ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP value. However, you can use a DATETIME data type for the created column provided it’s null allowed, like:

CREATE TABLE sample
( sample_id  INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY
, created    DATETIME 
, updated    TIMESTAMP NOT NULL
                       DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
                       ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);

You can then define an on insert database trigger that fires when you create a new row, like this:

CREATE TRIGGER sample_t
BEFORE INSERT ON sample
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  SET NEW.created = CURRENT_TIMESTAMP();
END;
$$

An INSERT statement would look like this:

INSERT INTO sample VALUES (NULL, NULL, NULL);

You would see the following if you query the table:

+-----------+---------------------+---------------------+
| sample_id | created             | updated             |
+-----------+---------------------+---------------------+
|         1 | 2011-08-11 00:26:21 | 2011-08-11 00:26:21 |
+-----------+---------------------+---------------------+

Hope this helps other too.

Written by maclochlainn

August 11th, 2011 at 1:31 am

Adding NOT NULL constraint

with 5 comments

Somebody wanted to know if you could add a NOT NULL column constraint in MySQL. That’s a great question and the answer is yes. The following example shows you how to do it.

  1. Create a sample table without a NOT NULL constraint on a column that should have one. After creating this table, describe it and you’ll see that the testing_text column is
CREATE TABLE testing
( testing_id   INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY
, testing_text VARCHAR(10));
  1. Change the column definition from null allowed to not null for the TESTING_TEXT column. The only problem with this syntax is that it only works when there are no null values in the table or there are no rows in the table.
ALTER TABLE testing
CHANGE testing_text testing_text VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL;
  1. Change the column definition from not null constrained to null allowed for the TESTING_TEXT column.
ALTER TABLE testing
CHANGE testing_text testing_text VARCHAR(10);

As always, I hope this helps.

Written by maclochlainn

March 26th, 2011 at 9:58 pm

Posted in MySQL,PSM,sql

Why SELECT-INTO, eh?

without comments

Somebody raised the question about writing stored functions while we were discussing scalar subqueries against COMMON_LOOKUP tables. Common look up tables store collections of possible <OPTION> elements. They’re basically generalized tables that contain a set of smaller tables, where the row sets make up a list of unique values.

When you write a function that must return one and only one row, the SELECT-INTO syntax is ideal in Oracle because it automatically raises an exception when the query returns no row or two or more rows. MySQL doesn’t raise an automatic exception when a SELECT-INTO fails to return a row but it does raise an ERROR 1722 when two or more rows are found.

Here are sample implementations written in Oracle’s PL/SQL and MySQL’s SQL/PSM languages. If you’re an Oracle developer and new to MySQL, the biggest oddity may be the delimiter, or it may be the sizing of formal parameters. Hopefully, its not the lack of formal declaration and exception blocks in SQL/PSM. For those coming from MySQL, the OR REPLACE command or dynamic sizing of formal parameter list values are the big changes.

Oracle PL/SQL Function

The Oracle PL/SQL function is very straightforward and helped by pre-defined exceptions for both the no data found and too many rows found errors. Formal parameters inherit their physical size at run time from the calling scope program.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
-- Create or replace existing function with new implementation.
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_common_lookup_id
( pv_table   VARCHAR2
, pv_column  VARCHAR2
, pv_type    VARCHAR2 )
RETURN NUMBER IS
 
  -- Declare a return variable.
  lv_return  NUMBER;
 
BEGIN
 
  -- Query data and assign it to a local variable.
  SELECT   common_lookup_id
  INTO     lv_return
  FROM     common_lookup
  WHERE    common_lookup_table = pv_table
  AND      common_lookup_column = pv_column
  AND      common_lookup_type = pv_type;
 
  -- Return the value found.
  RETURN lv_return;
 
EXCEPTION
 
  -- Handle errors.
  WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
    RAISE;
  WHEN TOO_MANY_ROWS THEN
    RAISE;
 
END;
/

MySQL SQL/PSM Function

The lack of an implicitly raised exception when a SELECT-INTO structure fails to return a row adds several steps to a SQL/PSM function. You must define a custom exception and an if-block to raise the exception, which is trigger by returning a null value into the lv_return local variable.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
/* Conditionally drop the function before trying to create it. */
DROP FUNCTION IF EXISTS get_common_lookup_id;
 
/* Change the delimiter to write a stored procedure into the database. */
DELIMITER $$
 
/* Create a function that replaces a scalar subquery. */
CREATE FUNCTION get_common_lookup_id
( pv_table   VARCHAR(30)
, pv_column  VARCHAR(30)
, pv_type    VARCHAR(30))
RETURNS INT UNSIGNED
BEGIN
 
  /* Declare a return variable. */
  DECLARE lv_return  INT UNSIGNED;
 
  /* Declare a local variable for a subsequent handler. */
  DECLARE no_data_found CONDITION FOR SQLSTATE '99001';
 
  /* Query data and assign it to a local variable. */
  SELECT   common_lookup_id
  INTO     lv_return
  FROM     common_lookup
  WHERE    common_lookup_table = pv_table
  AND      common_lookup_column = pv_column
  AND      common_lookup_type = pv_type;
 
  /* The local variable is only null when no rows are returned by the implicit cursor. */
  IF lv_return IS NULL THEN
    SIGNAL no_data_found SET MESSAGE_TEXT = 'Result was no rows found.';
  END IF;  
 
  /* Return the value found. */
  RETURN lv_return;
 
END;
$$
 
/* Reset the delimiter to the default to run other programs. */
DELIMITER ;

Hope this help solve your problems.

Written by maclochlainn

February 16th, 2011 at 11:03 pm

Create a synonym in MySQL

with 3 comments

A friend wanted to know how to create a synonym to a library of stored functions and procedures in MySQL. I had to deliver the sad news that you can’t create a synonym in MySQL 5.0, 5.1, or 5.5. You need to write a wrapper function or procedure.

A synonym (available in Oracle) would eliminate the need to call a function from another database through the component selector (or period). That’s because it maps a name to the reference and name instead of requiring you to include it with each call. The following shows a call from outside of the lib database:

SELECT lib.demo('Hello World!') AS "Statement";

He asked how to do it, so here’s how you do it below. Assume the following for this example:

  • You have a lib database where you define all your functions, procedures, and tables.
  • You have a app database that supports web connections.
  • You don’t want to allow web users to connect directly to the lib database because access to the tables should only be available through the functions and procedures.

This base function is simplified to avoid interaction with table data but illustrate the technique of definer rights functions. The function takes a string of up to 20 characters and returns it enclosed in double quotes. To mimic these behaviors, as the root user, you should create the app and lib databases, the dev and web users, and grant privileges to the dev user to act in the lib database and the web user to act in the app database. The example below does this as the root user, but in real life don’t use a trivial password like the example:

/* Create the two databases. */
CREATE DATABASE app;
CREATE DATABASE lib;
 
/* Create the two users, the developer can only connect locally. */
CREATE USER 'dev'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'dev';
CREATE USER 'web'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'web';
 
/* Grant privileges to be a definer in both databases. */
GRANT ALL ON app.* TO 'dev'@'localhost';
GRANT ALL ON lib.* TO 'dev'@'localhost';
 
/* Grant privileges to any function or privilege in the APP database to the WEB user. */
GRANT EXECUTE ON app.* TO 'web'@'%';

After creating and granting all the appropriate privileges, here are the steps to create the test case.

  1. You create and test the function as the dev user in the lib database.
/* Set the delimiter to something other than a semi-colon so they can be typed in statements. */
DELIMITER $$
 
/* Create a function that echoes back the string with double quotes. */
CREATE FUNCTION demo(str VARCHAR(20)) RETURNS VARCHAR(20)
BEGIN
  RETURN CONCAT('"',str,'"');
END;
$$
 
/* Reset the DELIMITER value. */
DELIMITER ;
 
/* Query the function. */
SELECT demo('Ciao amico!') AS "Statement";
  1. You create and test the wrapper function as the dev user in the app database.
/* Set the delimiter to something other than a semi-colon so they can be typed in statements. */
DELIMITER $$
 
/* Create a function that echoes back the string with double quotes. */
CREATE FUNCTION demo(str VARCHAR(20)) RETURNS VARCHAR(20)
BEGIN
  RETURN lib.demo(str);
END;
$$
 
/* Reset the DELIMITER value. */
DELIMITER ;
 
/* Query the function. */
SELECT demo('Ciao amico!') AS "Statement";

If you’re wondering why a GRANT wasn’t required from the lib database to the app database, it’s because the dev user has access to both databases and defined both objects.

  1. You can test the wrapper function as the web user in the app database.
SELECT demo('Yes, it works!') AS "Statement";

This is the closest to a synonym for a function or procedure that is possible. I know this solves his problem and hope it solves a couple others too.

Written by maclochlainn

February 5th, 2011 at 11:02 pm